Warning This Web page has been archived on the Web.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards. As per the Communications Policy of the Government of Canada. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

Vol. 138, No. 43 -- October 23, 2004

Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act

Statutory authority

Species at Risk Act

Sponsoring department

Department of the Environment

REGULATORY IMPACT
ANALYSIS STATEMENT

(This statement is not part of the Order.)

Description

The Minister of the Environment is recommending, pursuant to section 27, that 76 species be added to Schedule 1, the List of Wildlife Species at Risk of the Species at Risk Act(SARA). This recommendation is based on scientific assessments by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and on consultations with Canadian governments, Aboriginal peoples, stakeholders, and the Canadian public.

The Species at Risk Act received Royal Assent in December 2002, after extensive consultation with provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, environmental organizations, industry and the general public. The majority of the provisions of the Act came into force in June 2003; the prohibitions and enforcement provisions entered into force in June 2004. At the time of Royal Assent, 233 species were included on Schedule 1.

The purpose of SARA is threefold: to prevent wildlife species from being extirpated or becoming extinct; to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity; and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened. SARA complements provincial and territorial legislation as well as existing federal legislation (e.g. the Canada National Parks Act, the Canada Wildlife Act, the Fisheries Act, the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 and the Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act).

SARA provides for additional species to be added to or removed from Schedule 1, or their status changed, following their assessment by COSEWIC, by means of an Order issued by the Governor in Council (GIC).

SARA establishes COSEWIC as an independent, scientific advisory body on the status of species at risk. The Committee's primary function is to assess the level of risk for wildlife species based on the best available information on the biological status of a species, including scientific knowledge, aboriginal traditional knowledge and community knowledge. This assessment is based on biological factors identified in detailed status reports and the application of assessment criteria.

The degree of risk to a species is categorized according to the terms extirpated, endangered, threatenedand special concern. A species is assessed by COSEWIC as extirpated when it no longer exists in the wild in Canada but still exists elsewhere in the wild. It is endangered if it is facing imminent extirpation or extinction, and threatened if the species is likely to become endangered if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to its extirpation or extinction. Special concern status is given to a species if it may become threatened or endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.

Listing species as endangered or threatened under SARA leads to automatic prohibitions on killing or harming individuals or harming their residences, in the case of migratory birds, aquatic species, and those species occurring on federal lands. For all species listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened, a recovery strategy must be prepared within fixed timelines and at least one recovery action plan must be prepared following the development of the recovery strategy. For species listed as special concern, a management plan must be prepared. Should species not be effectively protected, SARA has "safety-net" provisions that give the federal government the power to make an Order securing their protection. The federal government would consult with the jurisdiction concerned and the public before any safety-net provisions are invoked.

On April 21, 2004, the Governor in Council officially received the COSEWIC assessments for 79 species that had been assessed by COSEWIC in its meetings of May 2002, November 2002 and May 2003. This action initiated a nine-month timeline during which the GIC may decide whether or not to add these 79 species to Schedule 1 of SARA, or to refer species back to COSEWIC for further consideration or information. Of the 79 species, 76 are the subject of this draft Order. Of the 76 species, 63 are terrestrial species for which the Minister of the Environment is responsible, and 13 are aquatic species for which the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans has primary responsibility under the Act. Of the 13 aquatic species, the Minister of the Environment also has responsibility for 4 of these species, as they occur within lands administered by the Parks Canada Agency.

The risk status, as assessed by COSEWIC for the 76 species proposed for listing, are presented in Appendix 1. For more specific information on each of these species, please refer to the SARA Public Registry at www.sararegistry.gc.ca.

Terrestrial species

All 63 terrestrial species are being proposed for addition to Schedule 1 of SARA. These include terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, terrestrial molluscs, plants, mosses and lichens.

Terrestrial mammals

The seven species or populations of terrestrial mammals that are being proposed for addition to Schedule 1 of SARA are the polar bear, the grizzly bear (Northwestern population), the woodland caribou (Northern Mountain population), the wolverine (Eastern population and Western population) and the grey fox. Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are significant threats to all these mammals. Habitat loss lowers the carrying capacity of the ecosystem, resulting in lower population densities. Habitat fragmentation isolates populations, resulting in restricted gene flow and reduced genetic diversity. Habitats do not have to be destroyed or altered to make them unsuitable for some species. The disturbance caused by the mere presence of people and the associated noise can cause some species, such as the wolverine, to avoid the affected area or reduce their chances of breeding successfully. All of the mammals proposed for addition to Schedule 1, except for the Townsend's mole, also have low birth rates, are long-lived and require extensive home ranges, factors which increase their susceptibility to population declines. Because of the low birth rates and the requirement for large home ranges, it is difficult for these species to regain former population levels.

The wolverine, the grey fox, the grizzly bear and the polar bear are at the top of the food chain, and so are also subject to bioaccumulation of toxic substances, in particular, persistent organic pollutants. As well, a reduction in prey species may have contributed to the reduction in populations of large carnivores.

Both the grey fox and the Townsend's mole reach the northern extent of their distributions in Canada (with most of their ranges in the United States), resulting in very small Canadian ranges, particularly for the Townsend's mole, which is restricted to only a few square kilometres. The southern parts of the country occupied by these two species are also the areas where human populations and their impacts are greatest. As a result, these species are seriously threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, cottage development and recreational activities.

Birds

There are three bird species that are being proposed for addition to Schedule 1. These are the cerulean warbler, the long-billed curlew, and the western screech-owl (macfarlanei subspecies and kennicottiisubspecies). Habitat loss on breeding, migration and wintering grounds is considered the greatest contributor to the decline of bird populations. Habitat-related problems, not only in Canada but also in other countries, are contributing to declines of the migratory cerulean warbler. This species occurs at the northern extent of its distribution in a restricted range in southern Ontario, where it is limited by climatic conditions, where the habitat may be suboptimal (further reduction in the quality of habitat puts the species at risk), and where human populations and their impacts are greatest. As a result, the warbler is affected by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, draining of wetlands, cottage development and recreational activities.

Both the macfarlanei and kennicottiisubspecies of the western screech-owl have been affected by habitat loss to housing and industry. Because they are at the top of their food chains, the reduction of prey species because of habitat loss is a threat. The macfarlanei subspecies is particularly severely affected, as only a very small population of the subspecies exists. Human activities, particularly habitat alteration, are likely responsible for the expansion of the barred owl's range into the range of the western screech-owl (kennicottii subspecies). Evidence suggests that the invading owls are preying on the screech-owls and may be contributing to their decline.

Cultivation of native prairie on the nesting grounds of the long-billed curlew have contributed to declines in its numbers and range. Continuing habitat loss and fragmentation are exacerbated by urban encroachment and resource extraction and result in increased predation. Lack of grazing and fire suppression have lead to forest encroachment on intermontane grasslands used by the curlew.

Butterflies and moths

The yucca moth and the mormon metalmark (Southern Mountain population) are proposed for addition to Schedule 1. Both are at risk of extirpation because they occur as extremely small and isolated northern outlier populations that occupy very restricted ranges. In addition, these species are habitat specialists; that is, they rely on certain species of plants to complete their life cycles. For example, the yucca moth depends on only one species of plant for survival, the soapweed, which cannot set seed without the yucca moth.

Remnant populations of the Southern Mountain population of the mormon metalmark occur in only one narrow valley in southern British Columbia. The valley is a major transportation and utility corridor. Any application of herbicides or insecticides, or further habitat loss or degradation, threaten to lead to the loss of the outlier population.

Reptiles

Thirteen species, subspecies or populations of reptiles are proposed for addition to Schedule 1. They are the Pacific gophersnake, the Pacific pond turtle, the blue racer, the eastern ribbonsnake (Atlantic population and Great Lakes population), the great basin gophersnake, the massasauga, the spiny softshell, the stinkpot, the northern map turtle, the rubber boa, the milksnake, and the western skink. The Pacific gophersnake, the Pacific pond turtle, the blue racer, the eastern ribbonsnake (Atlantic population and Great Lakes population), the great basin gophersnake, the massasauga, the spiny softshell, the northern map turtle, the rubber boa, and the western skink are peripheral species that reach the northern extent of their ranges in southern Canada. The eastern ribbonsnake (Atlantic population) is one reptile that occurs in Canada as a small, disjunct, northern outlier population, separated from the main part of the species range by hundreds of kilometres. Canadian populations of the massasauga have also become isolated and separated from the species' main range. Such disjunct populations are particularly vulnerable to inbreeding depression and random events, and their habitats are unlikely to be re-colonized if the species become extirpated.

Many of these peripheral species of reptiles are limited by climate, their ranges are necessarily quite small, and they occur in parts of the country that also support the highest human populations. As such, their habitats have been subject to loss, degradation and fragmentation as a result of human activities, particularly urban and industrial development, extraction operations, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, draining of wetlands, cottage development and recreational activities.

Road development fragments habitat so that populations of relatively sedentary species, such as the blue racer, also become fragmented. In such situations, species are vulnerable to restricted gene flow, which increases the vulnerability of populations in small habitat patches to disease outbreaks and other random events. Roads also increase mortality, particularly of snakes like the eastern ribbonsnake and the great basin gophersnake that seek warmth by basking on pavement.

Eastern ribbonsnakes (Atlantic population and Great Lakes population) may be affected by declines in amphibians upon which these snakes prey. Cats and dogs also prey on native species and are suspected of adding to the decline of populations of the eastern ribbonsnake (Great Lakes population) and the milksnake. Rubber boas are inadvertently killed when fields are hayed. The massasauga, a rattlesnake, is killed because it can be dangerous. The milksnake and the great basin gophersnake are killed because they are confused with rattlesnakes. The blue racer also suffers because some people fear or dislike snakes in general. The western skink and the northern map turtle are collected for the pet trade. All these activities result in the removal of individuals from what in most cases are already small populations, further increasing the risk of extirpation of some species or populations.

The stinkpot and the spiny softshell are being affected by aquatic pollution from sewage, industrial discharge, gasoline and oil leakage from boats, and runoff from roads and agricultural lands, which result in a decline in the quality of their habitats. The stinkpot is also inadvertently hit by motorboats and is subject to increased predation by raccoons, whose populations flourish in areas close to human habitation. The Pacific pond turtle and the northern map turtle have suffered population declines as a result of commercial harvesting for food, and are still being affected by wetland modification and destruction. The eggs of the spiny softshell and the northern map turtle are also being destroyed by fluctuating water levels, thereby lowering the reproductive success of these species.

Amphibians

Five amphibians are proposed for addition to Schedule 1. They are the red-legged frog, the spring salamander, the great plains toad and the Northern leopard frogs (Western Boreal/Prairie populations). All five are extremely susceptible to habitat change. Urbanization and agricultural use of grasslands, moist forest valleys and wetlands have rendered these habitats unsuitable for these amphibians. The draining of wetlands and forest operations has resulted in habitats that are now less able to support previous population numbers. The use of herbicides and pesticides and aquatic pollution from sewage, industrial discharge, gasoline and oil leakage from boats, and runoff from roads and agricultural lands have had serious negative impacts on some populations.

In addition, the red-legged frog and the spring salamander are peripheral species. Their restricted ranges are fragmented and are subject to a great deal of disturbance because they occur in the southern parts of Canada where human populations and their impacts are highest. Two of the main threats to both species are the loss and the degradation of their habitats, which are subject to considerable pressure from resource extraction, development and intensive recreational use. Both species are also threatened by predation and competition from introduced bullfrogs. The habitat of the red-legged frog has been impacted by the alteration of natural drainage patterns and water levels in lakes and streams. The spring salamander has specialized habitat requirements and is susceptible to changes in stream conditions resulting from the pumping of aquifers and the cutting of forests. Because of the species' low dispersal rates and late sexual maturity, salamander populations that are lost have little chance of recovery.

The great plains toad is negatively impacted by the conversion of grasslands to agriculture, and habitat fragmentation by roads leads to high mortality, particularly when large numbers of toads need to migrate to and from breeding ponds.

Northern leopard frogs (Western Boreal/Prairie populations) have undergone severe range contractions and population declines, particularly in western Canada. Remaining populations have become isolated as a result of habitat loss and degradation. In addition, this frog is threatened by commercial harvesting and use as bait. The introduction of game fish into breeding ponds which were formerly free of fish has made some ponds unsuitable because the fish prey on both the leopard frog and the western toad. The fish have also brought in diseases to which western toads and their tadpoles are susceptible. These toads are still relatively widespread, but have undergone population declines and extirpations, particularly in areas that are heavily populated by humans.

Terrestrial molluscs

There are four terrestrial molluscs proposed for addition to Schedule 1: the Puget Oregonian snail, the Oregon forestsnail, the dromedary jumping-slug, and the warty jumping-slug. All are relatively sedentary species and are seriously affected by habitat loss and fragmentation, making them vulnerable to restricted gene flow, which increases the vulnerability of populations in small habitat patches to stochastic events and results in their inability to recolonize habitat patches if local populations are lost.

All four terrestrial molluscs are peripheral species with most of their ranges in the United States. Their Canadian ranges are restricted to southern British Columbia, are often limited by climatic conditions, and are necessarily quite small. Moreover, human populations and their impacts are greatest in these areas, resulting in habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, extraction operations and conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Roads and other habitat alterations can change humidity, light and temperature conditions on a microclimatic scale thereby making habitats no longer suitable for these four species.

The Puget Oregonian, an inhabitant of old-growth forests, has disappeared from Canada, probably because the habitat within its very restricted range has been severely impacted by urbanization and agricultural use. Populations of the Oregon forestsnail, also a forest species, have also been impacted by development, are severely fragmented and continue to decline. Known threats to the dromedary jumping-slug and the warty jumping-slug are associated with habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from logging.

Non-native slugs occur in the habitats of the Puget Oregonian, the Oregon forestsnail and the dromedary jumping-slug and may prey on or compete with these species.

Plants, lichens and mosses

Twenty-seven species, subspecies, varieties or populations of plants, lichens and mosses are proposed for addition to Schedule 1. They are the bird's-foot violet, the coastal Scouler's catchfly, the eastern prairie fringed-orchid, the forked three-awned grass, the Howell's tritileia, the Kellogg's rush, the small-flowered sand-verbena, the streambank lupine, the common hoptree, the crooked-stem aster, the Lemmon's holly fern, the western spiderwort, the white wood aster, the wild hyacinth, the willowleaf aster, the climbing prairie rose, the tuberous Indian plantain, the margined streamside moss, the incurved grizzled moss, the silver hair moss, the spoon-leaved moss, the lakeside daisy, the Athabasca thrift, and two populations of the boreal felt lichen.

Habitat is the single most important issue for these plants, especially for those at the northern extent of their range. The bird's-foot violet, the coastal Scouler's catchfly, the eastern prairie fringed-orchid, the forked three-awned grass, the Howell's tritileia, the Kellogg's rush, the small-flowered sand-verbena, the streambank lupine, the common hoptree, the crooked-stem aster, the Lemmon's holly fern, the western spiderwort, the white wood aster, the wild hyacinth, the willowleaf aster, the climbing prairie rose, the tuberous Indian plantain, the margined streamside moss, the incurved grizzled moss, the silver hair moss, and the spoon-leaved moss all occur at the northern edge of their ranges in small, isolated pockets subject to random events, such as fire, flood or drought. The Canadian ranges of these species are restricted to the southern parts of the country and are often limited by climatic conditions. The ranges of the bird's-foot violet, the Lemmon's holly fern and the Athabasca thrift are restricted to a few square kilometres. Those of the Kellogg's rush, the small-flowered sand-verbena, the margined streamside moss and the spoon-leaved moss are confined to a number of square metres, while the incurved grizzled moss was known from only a few square centimetres. The southern parts of the country where peripheral species occur are also the areas where human populations and their impacts are greatest. As a result, virtually all peripheral species are affected by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, extraction operations, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, draining of wetlands, cottage development and recreational activities.

Among the peripheral species, Kellog's rush and Lemmon's holly fern occur in Canada as small, disjunct, northern outlier populations, separated from the main part of the species' ranges by hundreds of kilometres. Such populations are particularly vulnerable to inbreeding depression and stochastic events, and their habitats are unlikely to be recolonized if the species become extirpated.

The lakeside daisy and the Athabasca thrift are North American endemics with small, restricted ranges, all or a large portion of which occur in Canada. Approximately 95 percent of the small population of the lakeside daisy occurs in Ontario, and the entire global population of the Athabasca thrift is confined to one dune system in Saskatchewan.

The coastal Scouler's catchfly, which grows along coasts in areas that are occasionally flooded by high waves, is threatened by potential oil spills. The habitats of margined streamside moss, the Van Brunt's Jacob's-ladder, the small-flowered lipocarpha, the streambank lupine, the silver hair moss, the eastern prairie fringed-orchid, the Kellogg's rush, the crooked-stem aster and the tuberous Indian plantain are affected by alteration of water levels in the water table and in lakes and streams, and alteration of natural drainage patterns through stream channelization and construction of drainage ditches, dykes and dams.

The streambank lupine, the crooked-stem aster, the bird's-foot violet, the coastal Scouler's catchfly, the Kellog's rush and the willowleaf aster are threatened by road, highway or even park maintenance activities (including application of herbicides) that are detrimental to these species.

The Kellog's rush, the lakeside daisy, the Van Brunt's Jacob's-ladder, the climbing prairie rose, the tuberous Indian plantain, the coastal Scouler's catchfly, the forked three-awned grass, the western spiderwort, the white wood aster and the Athabasca thrift can be seriously harmed by trampling by foot traffic and especially ATV traffic.

Some populations of the common hoptree and the wild hyacinth have been damaged by the droppings of rapidly increasing cormorant populations. The cormorant population explosion was caused by overfishing of predatory fish species, which in turn caused certain species of fish taken by cormorants to increase in abundance.

The eastern prairie fringed-orchid and the western spiderwort are collected from the wild for use in gardens. In addition, these species as well as the Howell's triteleia, the bird's-foot violet, the coastal Scouler's catchfly, the climbing prairie rose and the forked three-awned grass depend on open habitats where fire suppression, lack of grazing and other natural disturbances can lead to these native plants being choked out by successional processes. The small-flowered sand-verbena and the western spiderwort also suffer from the lack of natural disturbances that maintain open dune systems where competition is reduced.

The white wood aster, the climbing prairie rose, the bird's-foot violet, the coastal Scouler's catchfly, the eastern prairie fringed-orchid, the forked three-awned grass, the Howell's triteleia, the small-flowered sand-verbena, the western spiderwort and the wild hyacinth are subject to serious and increasing threats from invasive alien species that compete with native species and render native habitats unsuitable for them. The streambank lupine is also at risk from the introduced yellow bush lupine, which threatens to hybridize with the native species and result in the loss of the native lupine through genetic swamping.

The boreal felt lichen, a global relict now occurring only in Canada as two populations (Boreal population and Atlantic population), is very sensitive to changes in microclimatic conditions. The removal of trees, making of roads and other habitat alterations can change humidity, light and temperature conditions on a microclimatic scale, thereby making habitats no longer suitable for the lichen. The species is also sensitive to airborne pollution from industrial sources and acid rain. The last few individuals of the boreal felt lichen (Atlantic population) in Nova Scotia are likely to disappear in the near future because of the species' sensitivity to air pollution and acid precipitation. The boreal felt lichen (Boreal population) and the spoon-leaved moss are also likely being affected by air pollution and acid rain.

The spoon-leaved moss appears to be threatened by climate change, which may possibly also threaten the boreal felt lichen (Boreal population).

Lemmon's holly fern and incurved grizzled moss have existed in Canada as small populations. Although apparently suitable habitat continues to exist and there are no apparent threats to either species, Lemmon's holly fern continues to persist in a restricted area but with no sign of sexual reproduction, while the incurved grizzled moss has become extirpated.

Aquatic species

Of the 16 aquatic species' assessments received by the Governor in Council, 13 are being proposed for addition to Schedule 1 of SARA, including marine mammals, freshwater fish and freshwater mussels.

The sei, blue and humpback whales (Pacific populations), the North Atlantic right whale and the blue whale (Atlantic population) are being proposed for addition to SARA Schedule 1. Each of these species was greatly reduced by commercial whaling that lasted into the 1900's, and none has recovered significantly from these low population levels since whaling was ended. Ongoing threats to these whales such as ship strikes and entanglement in fishing gear, coupled with low recruitment rates, mean that recovery of these species may be difficult to achieve.

Six freshwater fish species and two freshwater mussels are proposed for listing. These include one fish species found in Newfoundland (banded killifish--Newfoundland population), three fish species found in British Columbia (Enos Lake benthic and limnetic sticklebacks, Salish sucker), two fish species found in Ontario (pugnose shiner and northern madtom), and two freshwater mussels (kidneyshell and round hickorynut) also found in Ontario. These species all have quite restricted ranges and threats include habitat degradation, poor water quality, and in some cases the introduction of exotic invasive species. Recovery actions have been initiated for many of these species, in some cases at the multispecies or ecosystem level, which will benefit both these species and other aquatic and terrestrial species inhabiting the same areas.

The Minister of the Environment will propose that the Cultus and Sakinaw populations of Pacific sockeye salmon not be added to SARA Schedule 1. Although the overall health and resiliency of Pacific sockeye salmon is dependent on the genetic diversity that this individual populations represent, these two populations represent a small fraction of 1 percent of all BC sockeye salmon populations. Threats to these two populations include incidental catch in mixed-stock fisheries, predation in the lakes, obstructions to the migratory pathway (in the case of Sakinaw), habitat degradation, recreational impacts and unfavourable environmental conditions such as variations in freshwater flows and pre-spawn mortality related to early entry into rivers (Cultus).

The Minister of the Environment will propose that the speckled dace be referred back to COSEWIC for further consideration. In Canada, speckled dace occur only in a small portion of British Columbia in the Kettle River, south of Carni, and its tributaries. The Canadian population is considered distinct from American populations. The rate of population declines is estimated to be at least 10 percent per year. Threats identified include any event upriver affecting downstream habitat. Listing of speckled dace is controversial due to a proposed hydroelectric development which may impact key habitat for the species.

In addition to the proposal to add 76 species to Schedule 1, this draft Order would also correct spelling, typographical and taxonomic errors for 55 species already listed in Schedule 1. It would also remove 43 species from Schedule 2 (16 species) and Schedule 3 (27 species) of the Act because these species are proposed for addition to Schedule 1. As a result of this amendment, the names of species in Schedule 1 would also be updated to correspond to the names currently used by COSEWIC.

Alternatives

Under SARA, there are three options available once the GIC has received an assessment from COSEWIC: list the species, not list the species or send the species back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration. All three options were considered when developing this Order.

The first option is to propose adding species to Schedule 1 of SARA, thereby ensuring that these species receive protection in accordance with the prohibition provisions of SARA, as well as mandatory recovery planning and stewardship provisions. The Minister of the Environment is proposing to add 76 species to Schedule 1 of SARA.

The second option is not to add the species to Schedule 1. Although species may still be protected under other federal, provincial, or territorial legislation, species at risk not added to Schedule 1 would not benefit from the protection and recovery planning measures afforded by SARA.

The Minister will propose that the Cultus and Sakinaw populations of Pacific sockeye salmon not be listed because of the unacceptably high social and economic costs that commercial harvesters, recreational fishers and the recreational fishing industry, Aboriginal people, coastal communities and others would face if these species were added to Schedule 1. Because these small populations mix with much larger sockeye populations during the marine migration and the fishery, extensive fishery closures to the mixed-stock fisheries are required to ensure the protection of these small populations mandated by a SARA listing. Lost benefits to fisheries are estimated at $125 million over a four-year period if these populations are listed. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans has initiated comprehensive recovery programs for these populations, including significant fisheries restrictions and an investment of over $1 million in habitat restoration and broodstock protection programs in 2004, and intends to continue to take robust measures to protect and recover these populations.

The third alternative is to refer the species back to COSEWIC for further consideration. It would be appropriate to send an assessment back if significant new information becomes available after a status report is developed, through public consultation or others means. During the time that COSEWIC reviews the new information and confirms or modifies its assessment, the species would not benefit from the protection and recovery planning measures afforded by SARA.

The Minister of the Environment will propose that the speckled dace be referred back to COSEWIC for further consideration. Questions were raised in consultations about information that was used by COSEWIC for assessing the status of the speckled dace as being endangered. When COSEWIC made its assessment in 2002, it placed significant weight on a proposed hydroelectric dam that it believed could lead to a 22 percent loss of speckled dace habitat. The dam proposal has since been redesigned to lessen the impact on habitat by two-thirds. It is therefore appropriate that COSEWIC reconsider the status of the species in light of this new situation.

Benefits and costs

This proposal will entail both benefits and costs in terms of social, economic and environmental considerations through the implementation of the Act's immediate prohibitions upon listing and the recovery requirements. Some impacts can be quantified in absolute terms, while others are more qualitative, such as the intrinsic value of species or their contribution to the biological diversity of the planet.

Benefits

Upon being listed in Schedule 1, migratory birds covered by the Migratory Birds Convention Act and aquatic species, wherever they are found, as well as all species found on federal lands, will benefit from immediate protection in the form of prohibitions against killing, harming, harassing, capturing or taking individuals of species that are listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened. SARA also contains prohibitions against possessing, collecting, buying, selling or trading individuals, or parts or derivatives thereof, of extirpated, endangered or threatened listed species. In addition, the residences of individuals of listed species are protected.

Species will also benefit from the implementation of recovery strategies, action plans and management plans. Proposed recovery strategies, developed in consultation with stakeholders, must be included in the Public Registry within one year of a species being listed as endangered and within two years after a species is listed as threatened or extirpated. Proposed management plans for species of special concern must be prepared and posted on the Public Registry within three years of the species being listed.

Recovery measures to protect species/populations following listing, such as habitat protection and enhancement, would assist in rebuilding populations inhabiting the same areas, for example by benefiting other species that exist in the same watershed. This may lead to improved recreational opportunities for other fish and wildlife species and to enhanced ecosystem services from the areas where habitat protection and enhancement is carried out. Species occupy an ecological niche as predators, prey or symbionts, such that their recovery may contribute to strengthening related predator/prey populations and ecosystems.

Species provide various ecosystem services and serve as an indicator of, and contributor to, environmental quality. Many of these geographically and biologically distinct species are of public and scientific interest due to their unique genetic composition and evolutionary histories.

Freshwater fish and molluscs are often indicators of good water quality in watersheds where they occur. Potential recovery measures may improve surface water quality that would benefit water quality and ecosystem services provided by wetlands. Furthermore, potential recovery measures for several of these species may also lead to agricultural benefits from a more efficient use of fertilizers through improved nutrient management techniques and reduced soil erosion.

Clear economic gains for Canadians and for government would result from the protection and recovery of wildlife and species at risk. According to estimates based on the document, The Importance of Nature to Canadians (1996), the economic impact of recreational activities that depend on all types of wildlife and the natural areas they use is substantial. The billions of dollars spent by participants on these activities resulted in the creation of almost 215 000 jobs, which represents $5.9 billion in personal income for Canadians, a contribution of $12.1 billion to the Gross Domestic Product and a government tax revenue of $5.4 billion.

The protection of marine mammals can provide increased opportunities for an expanded eco-tourism industry, as the species recover and the populations increase. Many marine mammals are also highly appreciated by Aboriginal peoples. Industries such as forestry have recognized that sustainable use of the resource makes good business sense. There can be immediate cost savings as well as the long term viability of the resource.

Canadians depend upon biodiversity for continued food sources, new medicines, and the natural resource economy. Ecosystem health and the sustainable use of our current natural resources may be the source of future economic and employment opportunities. Many of these species are also valued by Aboriginal peoples for cultural, spiritual and subsistence purposes.

Species also have substantial non-use economic/intangible value to Canadian society. Citizens want to preserve species for future generations to enjoy; many derive value from knowing the species exist, even if they will never personally see or "use" them. There is also value derived from retaining the option to observe or even use the species at some future time.

A significant benefit of adding species to Schedule 1 is the conservation of biological, genetic and ecological diversity. Biological diversity, often referred to as biodiversity, includes both the amount and variety of life forms at several levels of scale, for instance, individual, population, community, ecosystem, landscape or biome. Genetic diversity refers to the number and abundance of gene types within a population and is important for maintaining the health of individuals and populations over time. Ecological diversity refers to the number and abundance of ecological types or zones (e.g. ecosystems, landscape features) and is important to maintain a variety of habitats needed by species, particularly in times of stress, such as drought or increased predation.

Biodiversity is invaluable to the sustainable productivity of soils and provides the genetic resources for harvested species. It protects against ecosystem disruptions and disease outbreaks and is an essential source of bio-control agents. The importance of biological diversity has been recognized internationally, as more than 180 countries have become parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, committing to promoting the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Listing of species under SARA may also contribute to Canada's image as international leader in environmental conservation and supports our role in international trade discussions. In the past, some American interests have charged that the lack of an endangered species act in Canada has presented Canadian industry with an unfair advantage over U.S. firms.

Costs

Adding a species to Schedule 1 and the resulting automatic prohibitions and mandatory recovery provisions may lead to costs for industry, Aboriginal communities and Government. Costs may also arise from recovery measures and protection of critical habitat, once they are in place. As a result of the protection resulting from the prohibitions applying to listed species found on federal lands and to listed aquatic and migratory birds species everywhere, listing of these species creates obligations for all federal resource or land management departments (in addition to Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Parks Canada) to ensure compliance with SARA.

For the freshwater fish and mollusc species proposed for listing, there may be restrictions on the operation and maintenance of marinas, dredging operations, and coastal development such as cottage and recreational development, urban development, transportation development, and agriculture. Reduced harvesting opportunities may result in reduced revenue in fisheries in which listed species are incidentally caught (pugnose shiner). These may result either through automatic prohibitions on listing or via measures required under recovery strategies.

Aboriginal peoples may experience the loss of some food, social and ceremonial harvesting of listed aquatic species or those caught incidentally in the harvest of co-migrating non-listed species, such as the salmon populations. Aboriginal peoples may also face reduced economic development opportunities from potential recovery measures, for example through restrictions on land development.

For the marine mammals which are proposed for listing, four main industry sectors could face economic costs as a result of protection and recovery actions: the fishing industry; the shipping industry; the tourism industry; and the oil and gas industry. The shipping industry may be affected by re-routing traffic, changing shipping lanes and slowing vessel speed that could lead to increased costs for fuel and time. The oil and gas industry may be subject to more restrictive guidelines for seismic exploration and development. The fishing industry may be subject to gear, time and area restrictions to minimize entanglements.

Although there are potential costs, it appears at the present time that costs due to listing these aquatic species will be limited because existing management measures for these species are close to those required under SARA. Incremental costs can probably be managed through stakeholder involvement, using mechanisms such as recovery teams.

The proposed amendment contains five migratory bird species. The implementation of the prohibitions resulting from the listing of these species will not result in any additional costs to the resource industry or individuals as these species are already protected by similar prohibitions under the Migratory Birds Convention Act.

All species found within the boundaries of National Parks, including species at risk, are also already protected under the Canada National Parks Act, the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park Act, or measures and management tools available to the Parks Canada Agency under other legislation. Protection measures that would result from adding species to Schedule 1 found on those lands would not, therefore, impose significant additional burdens on the public.

Current activities on federal Crown lands, including the activities of lessees of federal lands and Aboriginal people, may have to be adjusted to ensure compliance with the proposed addition of species to Schedule 1 and the protection prohibitions. For federal landholders, there will be a need to ensure that adequate protection measures are put in place to guard against any practices that could contravene the prohibitions protecting species at risk. For future activities on federal Crown lands that trigger a federal environmental assessment or activities that affect wildlife species, SARA requires that the environmental assessment identify and consider potential adverse effects on the listed wildlife species or its critical habitat and, if so, that the proponent notify the responsible Minister.

Governments will also incur a variety of direct management costs from adding a species to Schedule 1, including developing and implementing recovery strategies, action plans and management plans as well as research, consultation, negotiation, monitoring, enforcement and stewardship. Indirect costs could include the loss of tax and royalty income if listing reduced economic activity, and an increase in social benefit payments to affected individuals. However, these expenditures could generate offsetting revenue/economic benefits for local economies.

To help Canadians protect and recover species at risk, the Habitat Stewardship Program (HSP) has been established. The HSP allocates up to $10 million a year to projects that conserve and protect species at risk and their habitats. In the Program's first year 37 projects benefited, and this number will rise to 164 projects across the country in 2004-2005. Funding is being directed to projects relating to aquatic species, Aboriginal projects, environmental non-government organization projects in the resource sector and to a variety of other projects.

To assist federal departments in meeting the requirements set out under the Act, the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund (IRF) was created in 2001. The aim of this fund is to contribute to the recovery of extirpated, endangered and threatened species by supporting high-priority recovery activities.

Consultation

Public consultation is an essential part of the regulatory process of the Government of Canada. The SARA listing process was designed to be both open and transparent. Under the Act, the scientific assessment of the species status and the decision to place it on the legal list are two separate processes. This separation guarantees that scientists benefit from independence when making assessments of the biological status of species and that Canadians have the opportunity to participate in the decision-making process in determining whether or not species will be listed under SARA.

Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted public consultations on the proposed listing of species under the responsibilities of the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans respectively. Canadians were invited to express their views on the proposal to include or not include each of the 79 species on the legal list established under SARA.

Environment Canada began public consultations in March 2004 on the 63 terrestrial species assessed to be at risk by COSEWIC. Stakeholders and the general public were consulted by means of a document entitled Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act--March 2004. The document outlined the species for which addition to Schedule 1 is being considered, the reasons for considering listing, and the implications of listing species. This document was posted on the Public Registry. The consultation process also consisted of wide distribution of the consultation document and direct consultation with identified stakeholders, including various industrial sectors, provincial/territorial governments, federal departments and agencies, Aboriginal organizations, wildlife management boards, resource users, landowners and environmental non-government organizations. Meetings were held with affected Aboriginal people, the Species at Risk Advisory Committee and other identified concerned groups.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada consulted Canadians during the first half of 2004 on whether or not to add 16 aquatic species to SARA Schedule 1. Consultations were facilitated through consultation workbooks and other supporting documents, which were posted online on the Public Registry and Fisheries and Oceans Canada Internet sites. It was also mailed directly to other government departments, stakeholders, Aboriginal peoples, and non-government organizations. Meetings were held with interested or potentially affected individuals, organizations, and Aboriginal peoples. Consultations were organized as efficiently as possible by grouping species by their geographical location and by using existing mechanisms, such as pre-scheduled recovery strategy workshops or regular industry consultation meetings.

Several non-governmental organizations and individuals expressed disapproval of the federal government's listing process, including the Canadian Nature Federation, the Sierra Club of Canada, Environmental Defence Canada and the World Wildlife Fund. In general, these organizations maintain that listing should be based solely on COSEWIC's scientific assessment and not on social, economic or other factors. Other stakeholders, such as the Fisheries Council of Canada and some provincial and territorial governments, expressed support for the process whereby stakeholder input was solicited and considered in developing recommendations on whether to list species.

Many comments and concerns were received during consultations, both through written submissions and during meetings and workshops from Aboriginal groups, environmental groups, hunting associations, industry groups and the public. With regard to the 63 terrestrial species, most Canadians that provided comments support COSEWIC'S assessments and asked the Minister of the Environment to proceed with recommending the inclusion of these species in Schedule 1 of SARA.

A number of organizations disagree with the proposed inclusion of the polar bear (Conservation Force and Canadian Circumpolar Institute), the grizzly bear (Conservation Force and the Guide Outfitters Association of British Columbia) and the woodland caribou (Conservation Force) on the list. They argue that these species or populations are well-managed and secure in terms of their conservation status. The species in question were assessed by COSEWIC as special concern. Management plans for special concern species may authorize hunting if it is done at a sustainable level and does not detrimentally affect the population status. The Forest Products Association of Canada believes that seven terrestrial species assessments were made with insufficient scientific information (i.e. Oregon forestsnail, margined streamside moss, silver hair moss, dromedary jumping slug, Van Brunt's Jacob's-ladder, Western toad and warty jumping slug). The Association recommends that these species should be referred back to COSEWIC for further consideration. However, no new scientific information has come to light since the development of the status reports for these species that would re-quire sending these assessments back to COSEWIC for further consideration.

With respect to the 16 aquatic species, the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board confirmed their support for listing the blue whale (Atlantic population).

Provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, and industry stakeholders signalled support for the protection and recovery of aquatic species at risk, while raising concerns regarding negative implications to social and economic activities. The greatest concern for the freshwater fishes and molluscs under consideration is that protection and recovery actions will unduly impact agriculture, forestry, and other natural resource-based activities. Likewise, the shipping, oil and gas, fishing, and other ocean-based sectors voiced some concern regarding protection and recovery actions for marine mammals that may negatively impact future development. Any sectors affected by recovery actions will be included as part of planning and implementation of the recovery process.

The strongest and most widespread opposition to listing was received during consultations on the Sakinaw and Cultus populations of Pacific sockeye salmon. Commercial harvesters and recreational fishers are concerned that further conservation measures for these populations will further restrict mixed-stock fisheries in the Fraser River and in the Juan de Fuca, Johnstone and Georgia Straits, resulting in severe social and economic hardship. Aboriginal peoples in inland areas consider these populations to be culturally important because of their historic role in meeting food, social and ceremonial needs, and thus support their listing, while Aboriginal people in the marine environment who are more closely associated with the mixed-stock fishing oppose the listings because of potential restrictions on mixed-stock fisheries.

The municipalities of Grand Forks and Greenwood in south central British Columbia expressed their concern about the listing of speckled dace, as they considered that this could impact the construction of a hydroelectric development project in that area. The proponent of the project, Powerhouse Developments Inc., also expressed concern that the COSEWIC status report did not accurately reflect the species' status, particularly in light of the fact that the dam had been substantially redesigned since completion of the COSEWIC status assessment to reduce impact on speckled dace habitat. An environmental group in this area supported the listing of the speckled dace.

Strategic environmental assessment

A decision to list 76 of the species assessed as at risk by COSEWIC would ensure that they receive the full benefits of the protection and recovery measures established in the Species at Risk Act. This would result in overall benefits to the environment both in terms of the actual species protected and in terms of overall protection of Canada's biodiversity.

A decision not to list the Cultus and Sakinaw populations of Pacific sockeye salmon would mean that some level of by-catch resulting from the mixed-stock fisheries would continue. Recognizing that harvesting by the fisheries has been identified as a key threat to these populations, and given their precarious status, continued fishing would pose an ongoing threat to these two populations. However, Fisheries and Oceans Canada will continue to implement a departmental action plan for the protection and recovery of these populations, based on continued stringent fishery restrictions and habitat restoration and broodstock protection programs. SARA-compliant recovery strategies for the two populations are under development. These will be completed in 2005 and will be used to orient future recovery. Although the overall health and resiliency of Pacific sockeye salmon is dependent on the genetic diversity that individual populations represent, these two populations represent a small fraction of one percent of all British Columbia sockeye salmon populations. Nevertheless, should these populations disappear, their loss would add to the cumulative decline of Canada's biodiversity.

Referring the assessment of the speckled dace back to COSEWIC for further information would mean a delay in a decision regarding listing the species, if COSEWIC confirmed that the species is at risk. In the interim, the species would not benefit from SARA prohibitions and remains vulnerable to any upstream impacts in the small watersheds where it occurs. Regarding the proposed hydroelectric dam, the project proponent has redesigned the project to reduce habitat impacts on the speckled dace subsequent to the COSEWIC assessment. An environmental assessment, which must consider potential impacts on the speckle dace under CEAA requirements, is ongoing for this project.

Compliance and enforcement

The Species at Risk Act promotes the protection and recovery of species at risk by engaging Canadians in stewardship programs and by giving landowners, land users and other stakeholders the opportunity to participate in the recovery process. Stewardship actions include the wide range of voluntary actions Canadians are taking to monitor species at risk and their habitats, recovery actions to improve the status of species at risk, and direct actions to protect species at risk.

Environment Canada, Parks Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada facilitate stewardship activities and promote compliance with SARA by producing promotional and educational materials and organizing educational activities. These materials and activities include, for example, the SARA Public Registry, an electronic information bulletin, posters, information sessions, engaging learning activities, Web features, curricula and other public education projects. As well, funding under the Habitat Stewardship Program is available for those groups or individuals wishing to undertake projects to protect and enhance important habitat.

At the time of listing, automatic prohibitions on the harming of individuals and their residences come into effect, thus providing immediate and direct protection. Subsequently, recovery strategies, action plans and management plans must be developed to promote and manage the recovery of the species. The implementation of these plans may result in recommendations for further regulatory action for protection of the species or may draw on the provisions of other acts of Parliament, such as the Fisheries Act, to provide required protection.

SARA provides for penalties for contraventions to the Act, including liability for costs, fines or imprisonment, alternative measures agreements, seizure and forfeiture of the proceeds of an illegal activity. SARA also provides for inspections and search and seizure operations by qualified officers designated under SARA. Under the penalty provisions of the Act, a corporation found guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction is liable to a fine of not more than $300,000, a non-profit corporation is liable to a fine of not more than $50,000, and any other person is liable to a fine of not more than $50,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year, or to both. A corporation found guilty of an indictable offence is liable to a fine of not more than $1,000,000, a non-profit corporation to a fine of not more than $250,000, and any other person to a fine of not more than $250,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years, or to both.

Certain activities affecting a listed species will require permits. Such permits will be considered only for research relating to the conservation of a species that is conducted by qualified scientists, for activities that benefit a listed species or enhance its chances of survival, and for activities that incidentally affect a listed species. These exceptions can be made only when it is established that all reasonable alternatives have been considered and that the best solution has been adopted, when all feasible measures will be taken to minimize the impact of the activity, and when the survival or recovery of the species will not be jeopardized.

Contacts

Ms. Renée Bergeron, Regulatory Analyst, Legislative Services, Program Integration Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3, (819) 997-1301 (telephone), (819) 953-7177 (facsimile); Ms. Maryse Mahy, Project Manager, SARA Legislation and Policy, Ecological Integrity Branch, Parks Canada, Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0M5, (819) 953-6465 (telephone), (819) 997-4831 (facsimile); or Mr. Peter Ferguson, Regulatory Analyst, Legislative and Regulatory Affairs, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E6, (613) 990-9325 (telephone), (613) 993-5204 (facsimile).

Appendix 1. Seventy-six species proposed for listing on Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act

TaxonSpecies
Extirpated
ReptilesGophersnake, Pacific
ReptilesTurtle, Pacific Pond
MolluscsSnail, Puget Oregonian
MossesMoss, Incurved Grizzled
Endangered
MammalsMole, Townsend's
MammalsWhale, Blue
Atlantic population
MammalsWhale, Blue
Pacific population
MammalsWhale, North Atlantic Right
MammalsWhale, Sei
Pacific population
MammalsWolverine
Eastern population
BirdsScreech-owl macfarlanei subspecies, Western
ReptilesRacer, Blue
FishMadtom, Northern
FishShiner, Pugnose
FishStickleback
Benthic Enos Lake
FishStickleback
Limnetic Enos Lake
FishSucker, Salish
LepidopteransMetalmark, Mormon Southern Mountain population
LepidopteransMoth, Yucca
MolluscsForestsnail, Oregon
MolluscsHickorynut, Round
MolluscsKidneyshell
Vascular PlantsCatchfly, Coastal Scouler's
Vascular PlantsFringed-Orchid,
Eastern Prairie
Vascular PlantsGrass, Forked Three-awned
Vascular PlantsLipocarpha, Small-flowered
Vascular PlantsLupine, Streambank
Vascular PlantsRush, Kellogg's
Vascular PlantsSand-verbena, Small-flowered
Vascular PlantsTriteleia, Howell's
Vascular PlantsViolet, Bird's-foot
LichensLichen, Boreal Felt
Atlantic population
MossesMoss, Margined Streamside
MossesMoss, Silver Hair
MossesMoss, Spoon-leaved
Threatened
MammalsFox, Grey
MammalsWhale, Humpback
North Pacific population
ReptilesGophersnake, Great Basin
ReptilesMassasauga
ReptilesRibbonsnake, Eastern
Atlantic population
ReptilesSoftshell, Spiny
ReptilesStinkpot
LepidopteransMetalmark, Mormon
MolluscsJumping-slug, Dromedary
Vascular PlantsAster, Crooked-stem
Vascular PlantsAster, White Wood
Vascular PlantsAster, Willowleaf
Vascular PlantsDaisy, Lakeside
Vascular PlantsFern, Lemmon's Holly
Vascular PlantsHoptree, Common
Vascular PlantsHyacinth, Wild
Vascular PlantsJacob's-ladder, Van Brunt's
Vascular PlantsSpiderwort, Western
Special Concern
MammalsBear, Grizzly
Northwestern population
MammalsBear, Polar
MammalsCaribou, Woodland
Northern Mountain population
MammalsWolverine
Western population
BirdsCurlew, Long-billed
BirdsScreech-owl kennicottii subspecies, Western
BirdsWarbler, Cerulean
ReptilesBoa, Rubber
ReptilesMilksnake
ReptilesRibbonsnake, Eastern
Great Lakes population
ReptilesSkink, Western
ReptilesTurtle, Northern Map
AmphibiansFrog, Northern Leopard
Western Boreal/Prairie populations
AmphibiansFrog, Red-legged
AmphibiansSalamander, Spring
AmphibiansToad, Great Plains
AmphibiansToad, Western
FishKillifish, Banded
Newfoundland population
MolluscsJumping-slug, Warty
Vascular PlantsIndian-plantain, Tuberous
Vascular PlantsRose, Climbing Prairie
Vascular PlantsThrift, Athabasca
LichensLichen, Boreal Felt
Boreal population

PROPOSED REGULATORY TEXT

Notice is hereby given that the Governor in Council, pursuant to section 27 of the Species at Risk Act (see footnote a), proposes to make the annexed Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act.

Interested persons may make representations concerning the proposed amendment within 30 days after the date of publication of this notice. All such representations must cite the Canada Gazette Part I, the date of publication of this notice and be addressed to the Director General, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3.

Ottawa, October 18, 2004

EILEEN BOYD
Assistant Clerk of the Privy Council

ORDER AMENDING SCHEDULES 1
TO 3 TO THE SPECIES AT RISK ACT

AMENDMENTS

1. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (see footnote 1) is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Grouse, Sage (Centrocercus urophasianus phaios) British Columbia population
Tétras des armoises population de la Colombie-Britannique

2. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Sage-Grouse phaios subspecies, Greater (Centrocercus urophasianus phaios)
Tétras des armoises de la sous-espèce phaios

3. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Lizard, Pigmy Short-horned (Phrynosoma douglassii douglassii) British Columbia population
Iguane pygmée à cornes courtes population de la Colombie-Britannique

4. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "REPTILES":

Gophersnake, Pacific (Pituophis catenifer catenifer)
Couleuvre à nez mince du Pacifique

Lizard, Pigmy Short-horned (Phrynosoma douglasii) British Columbia population
Iguane pygmée à cornes courtes population de la Colombie-Britannique

Turtle, Pacific Pond (Actinemys marmorata)
Tortue de l'Ouest

5. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Snail, Puget Oregonian (Cryptomastix devia)
Escargot du Puget

6. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Elfin, Frosted (Callophrys irus, Incisalia irus)
Lutin givré

7. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Elfin, Frosted (Callophrys [Incisalia] irus)
Lutin givré

8. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Mary, Spring Blue-eyed (Collinsia verna)
Collinsie printanière

9. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Spring Blue-eyed Mary (Collinsia verna)
Collinsie printanière

10. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following after the last reference under the heading "PLANTS":

MOSSES

Moss, Incurved Grizzled (Ptychomitrium incurvum)
Ptychomitre à feuilles incurvées

11. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Badger jacksoni subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jacksoni)
Blaireau d'Amérique, jacksoni

Badger jeffersonii subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jeffersonii)
Blaireau d'Amérique, jeffersonii

Marten, American (Martes americana atrata) Newfoundland population
Martre d'Amérique population de Terre-Neuve

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific southern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du Sud du Pacifique Nord-Est

12. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MAMMALS":

Badger jacksoni subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jacksoni)
Blaireau d'Amérique de la sous-espèce jacksoni

Badger jeffersonii subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jeffersonii)
Blaireau d'Amérique de la sous-espèce jeffersonii

Marten, Newfoundland (Martes americana atrata)
Martre de Terre-Neuve

Mole, Townsend's (Scapanus townsendii)
Taupe de Townsend

Whale, Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) Atlantic population
Rorqual bleu population de l'Atlantique

Whale, Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) Pacific population
Rorqual bleu population du Pacifique

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific southern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du sud du Pacifique Nord-Est

Whale, North Atlantic Right (Eubalaena glacialis)
Baleine noire de l'Atlantique Nord

Whale, Sei (Balaenoptera borealis) Pacific population
Rorqual boréal population du Pacifique

Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Eastern population
Carcajou population de l'Est

13. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat, Western Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens auricollis) British Columbia population
Paruline polyglotte de l'Ouest population de la Colombie-Britannique

Grouse, Sage (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) Prairie population
Tétras des armoises population des Prairies

Owl, Burrowing (Speotyto cunicularia)
Chevêche des terriers

Owl, Northern Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina)
Chouette tachetée du Nord

Plover circumcinctus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus circumcinctus)
Pluvier siffleur, circumcinctus

Plover melodus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus melodus)
Pluvier siffleur, melodus

Shrike, Eastern Loggerhead (Lanius ludovicianus migrans)
Pie-grièche migratrice de l'Est

14. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat auricollis subspecies, Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens auricollis) British Columbia population
Paruline polyglotte de la sous-espèce auricollispopulation de la Colombie-Britannique

Owl, Burrowing (Athene cunicularia)
Chevêche des terriers

Owl caurina subspecies, Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina)
Chouette tachetée de la sous-espèce caurina

Plover circumcinctus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus circumcinctus)
Pluvier siffleur de la sous-espèce circumcinctus

Plover melodus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus melodus)
Pluvier siffleur de la sous-espèce melodus

Sage-Grouse urophasianus subspecies, Greater (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus)
Tétras des armoises de la sous-espèce urophasianus

Screech-owl macfarlanei subspecies, Western (Megascops kennicottii macfarlanei)
Petit-duc des montagnes de la sous-espèce macfarlanei

Shrike migrans subspecies, Loggerhead (Lanius ludovicianus migrans)
Pie-grièche migratrice de la sous-espèce migrans

15. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Snake, Night (Hypsiglena torquata)
Couleuvre nocturne

Turtle, Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea)
Tortue luth

16. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "REPTILES":

Nightsnake (Hypsiglena torquata)
Couleuvre nocturne

Racer, Blue (Coluber constrictor foxii)
Couleuvre agile bleue

Seaturtle, Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea)
Tortue luth

17. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Salmon, Atlantic (Salmo salar)
Saumon d'Atlantique populations de l'intérieur de la baie de Fundy

18. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "FISH":

Madtom, Northern (Noturus stigmosus)
Chat-fou du Nord

Salmon, Atlantic (Salmo salar) Inner Bay of Fundy populations
Saumon atlantique populations de l'intérieur de la baie de Fundy

Shiner, Pugnose (Notropis anogenus)
Méné camus

Stickleback, Benthic Enos Lake (Gasterosteus sp.)
Épinoche benthique du lac Enos

Stickleback, Limnetic Enos Lake (Gasterosteussp.)
Épinoche limnétique du lac Enos

Sucker, Salish (Catostomus sp.)
Meunier de Salish

19. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Mussel, Mudpuppy (Simpsonais ambigua)
Mulette du Necturus

Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)
Epioblasme tricorn

20. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Forestsnail, Oregon (Allogona townsendiana)
Escargot-forestier de Townsend

Hickorynut, Round (Obovaria subrotunda)
Obovarie ronde

Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus fasciolaris)
Ptychobranche réniforme

Mussel, Mudpuppy (Simpsonaias ambigua)
Mulette du Necturus

Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)
Épioblasme tricorne

21. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Metalmark, Mormon (Apodemia mormo) Southern Mountain population
Mormon population des montagnes du Sud

Moth, Yucca (Tegeticula yuccasella)
Teigne du yucca

22. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Ammania, Scarlet (Ammannia robusta)
Ammannie robuste

Bluehearts (Buchnera americana)
Buchnera d'Amérique

Bugbane, Tall (Cimicifuga elata)
Cimicaire élevée

Bulrush, Bashful (Trichophorum planifolium)
Scirpe timide

Bush-Clover, Slender (Lespedeza virginica)
Lespédèze de Virginie

Ginseng, American (Panax quinquefolium)
Ginseng à cinq folioles

Goldenrod, Showy (Solidago speciosa var. rigidiuscula)
Verge d'or voyante

Mountain-Mint, Hoary (Pycnanthemum incanum)
Pycnanthème gris

Orchid, Western Prairie Fringed (Platanthera praeclara)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Ouest

Owl-Clover, Bearded (Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor)
Triphysaire versicolore

Sedge, Juniper (Carex juniperorum)
Carex des Genévriers

Virginia Goat's-rue (Tephrosia virginiana)
Téphrosie de Virginie

Wintergreen, Spotted (Chimaphila maculata)
Chimaphile maculé

Wood-Poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)
Stylophore à deux feuilles

23. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Ammannia, Scarlet (Ammannia robusta)
Ammannie robuste

Bluehearts (Buchnera americana)
Buchnéra d'Amérique

Bugbane, Tall (Actaea elata)
Cimicaire élevée

Bulrush, Bashful (Trichophorum planifolium)
Trichophore à feuilles plates

Bush-clover, Slender (Lespedeza virginica)
Lespédèze de Virginie

Catchfly, Coastal Scouler's (Silene scouleri grandis)
Grand silène de Scouler

Fringed-Orchid, Eastern Prairie (Platanthera leucophaea)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Est

Fringed-orchid, Western Prairie (Platanthera praeclara)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Ouest

Ginseng, American (Panax quinquefolius)
Ginseng à cinq folioles

Goat's-rue, Virginia (Tephrosia virginiana)
Téphrosie de Virginie

Goldenrod, Showy (Solidago speciosa)
Verge d'or voyante

Grass, Forked Three-awned (Aristida basiramea)
Aristide à rameaux basilaires

Lipocarpha, Small-flowered (Lipocarpha micrantha)
Lipocarphe à petites fleurs

Lupine, Streambank (Lupinus rivularis)
Lupin des ruisseaux

Mountain-mint, Hoary (Pycnanthemum incanum)
Pycnanthème gris

Owl-clover, Bearded (Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor)
Triphysaire versicolore

Rush, Kellogg's (Juncus kelloggii)
Jonc de Kellogg

Sand-verbena, Small-flowered (Tripterocalyx micranthus)
Abronie à petites fleurs

Sedge, Juniper (Carex juniperorum)
Carex des genévriers

Triteleia, Howell's (Triteleia howellii)
Tritéléia de Howell

Violet, Bird's-foot (Viola pedata)
Violette pédalée

Wintergreen, Spotted (Chimaphila maculata)
Chimaphile maculée

Wood-poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)
Stylophore à deux feuilles

24. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LICHENS":

Lichen, Boreal Felt (Erioderma pedicellatum) Atlantic population
Érioderme boréal population de l'Atlantique

25. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOSSES":

Moss, Margined Streamside (Scouleria marginata)
Scoulérie à feuilles marginées

Moss, Silver Hair (Fabronia pusilla)
Fabronie naine

Moss, Spoon-leaved (Bryoandersonia illecebra)
Andersonie charmante

26. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Ermine haidarum subspecies (Mustela erminea haidarum)
Hermine, haidarum

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific northern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du Nord Pacifique Nord-Est

27. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MAMMALS":

Ermine haidarum subspecies (Mustela erminea haidarum)
Hermine de la sous-espèce haidarum

Fox, Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
Renard gris

Whale, Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) North Pacific population
Rorqual à bosse population du Pacifique Nord

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific northern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du nord du Pacifique Nord-Est

28. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Falcon Anatum, Peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum)
Faucon pèlerin, anatum

Goshawk, Queen Charlotte (Accipiter gentilis laingi)
Autour des palombes des îles de la Reine-Charlotte

29. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Falcon anatum subspecies, Peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum)
Faucon pèlerin de la sous-espèce anatum

Goshawk laingi subspecies, Northern (Accipiter gentilis laingi)
Autour des palombes de la sous-espèce laingi

30. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Great Basin Spadefoot (Spea intermontana)
Crapaud du Grand Bassin

Salamander, Pacific Giant (Dicamptodon tenebrosus)
Grande salamandre

31. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Salamander, Coastal Giant (Dicamptodon tenebrosus)
Grande salamandre

Spadefoot, Great Basin (Spea intermontana)
Crapaud du Grand Bassin

32. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Snake, Black Rat (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta)
Couleuvre obscure

Snake, Eastern Fox (Elaphe vulpina gloydi)
Couleuvre fauve de l'Est

33. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "REPTILES":

Foxsnake, Eastern (Elaphe gloydi)
Couleuvre fauve de l'Est

Gophersnake, Great Basin (Pituophis catenifer deserticola)
Couleuvre à nez mince du Grand Bassin

Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)
Massasauga

Ratsnake, Eastern (Elaphe obsoleta)
Couleuvre obscure de l'Est

Ribbonsnake, Eastern (Thamnophis sauritus) Atlantic population
Couleuvre mince population de l'Atlantique

Softshell, Spiny (Apalone spinifera)
Tortue-molle à épines

Stinkpot (Sternotherus odoratus)
Tortue musquée

34. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Sculpin, Cultus Pygmy (Cottus sp.)
Chabot pygmé

Shiner, Rosyface (Notropis rubellus) Eastern population
Tête rose population de l'Est

35. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "FISH":

Sculpin, Cultus Pygmy (Cottus sp.)
Chabot pygmée

Shiner, Carmine (Notropis percobromus)
Tête carmin

36. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Jumping-slug, Dromedary (Hemphillia dromedarius)
Limace-sauteuse dromadaire

37. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Metalmark, Mormon (Apodemia mormo) Prairie population
Mormon population des Prairies

38. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, Western Silver-leaved (Symphyotrichum sericeum)
Aster soyeux

Colicroot (Aletris farinosa)
Aletris farineux

Fern, Mexican Mosquito (Azolla mexicana)
Azolle du Mexique

Orchid, Phantom (Cephalanthera austiniae)
Cephalanthère d'Austin

Star, Dense Blazing (Liatris spicata)
Liatris à épi

39. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, Crooked-stem (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)
Aster fausse-prenanthe

Aster, Western Silvery (Symphyotrichum sericeum)
Aster soyeux

Aster, White Wood (Eurybia divaricata)
Aster divariqué

Aster, Willowleaf (Symphyotrichum praealtum)
Aster très élevé

Blazing Star, Dense (Liatris spicata)
Liatris à épi

Colicroot (Aletris farinosa)
Alétris farineux

Daisy, Lakeside (Hymenoxys herbacea)
Hyménoxys herbacé

Fern, Lemmon's Holly (Polystichum lemmonii)
Polystic de Lemmon

Hoptree, Common (Ptelea trifoliata)
Ptéléa trifolié

Hyacinth, Wild (Camassia scilloides)
Camassie faux-scille

Jacob's-ladder, Van Brunt's (Polemonium vanbruntiae)
Polémoine de Van Brunt

Mosquito-fern, Mexican (Azolla mexicana)
Azolle du Mexique

Orchid, Phantom (Cephalanthera austiniae)
Céphalanthère d'Austin

Spiderwort, Western (Tradescantia occidentalis)
Tradescantie de l'Ouest

40. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific offshore population
Épaulard population au large du Pacifique Nord-Est

41. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MAMMALS":

Bear, Grizzly (Ursus arctos) Northwestern population
Ours grizzli population du Nord-Ouest

Bear, Polar (Ursus maritimus)
Ours blanc

Caribou, Woodland (Rangifer tarandus caribou) Northern Mountain population
Caribou des bois population des montagnes du Nord

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific offshore population
Épaulard population océanique du Pacifique Nord-Est

Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Western population
Carcajou population de l'Ouest

42. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat, Eastern Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens virens)
Paruline polyglotte de l'Est

Falcon, Peale's Peregrine (Falco peregrinus pealei)
Faucon pèlerin, pealei

Sparrow, "Ipswich" Savannah (Passerculus sandwichensis princeps)
Bruant des prés, princeps

43. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat virens subspecies, Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens virens)
Paruline polyglotte de la sous-espèce virens

Curlew, Long-billed (Numenius americanus)
Courlis à long bec

Falcon pealei subspecies, Peregrine (Falco peregrinus pealei)
Faucon pèlerin de la sous-espèce pealei

Screech-owl kennicottii subspecies, Western (Megascops kennicottii kennicottii)
Petit-duc des montagnes de la sous-espèce kennicottii

Sparrow princeps subspecies, Savannah (Passerculus sandwichensis princeps)
Bruant des prés de la sous-espèce princeps

Warbler, Cerulean (Dendroica cerulea)
Paruline azurée

44. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Salamander, Coeur d'Alène (Plethodon idahoensis)
Salamandre Coeur d'Alène

45. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Frog, Northern Leopard (Rana pipiens) Western Boreal/Prairie populations
Grenouille léopard populations boréales de l'Ouest/des Prairies

Frog, Red-legged (Rana aurora)
Grenouille à pattes rouges

Salamander, Coeur d'Alene (Plethodon idahoensis)
Salamandre de Coeur d'Alène

Salamander, Spring (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus)
Salamandre pourpre

Toad, Great Plains (Bufo cognatus)
Crapaud des steppes

Toad, Western (Bufo boreas)
Crapaud de l'Ouest

46. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following after the last reference under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

REPTILES

Boa, Rubber (Charina bottae)
Boa caoutchouc

Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum)
Couleuvre tachetée

Ribbonsnake, Eastern (Thamnophis sauritus) Great Lakes population
Couleuvre mince population des Grands Lacs

Skink, Western (Eumeces skiltonianus)
Scinque de l'Ouest

Turtle, Northern Map (Graptemys geographica)
Tortue géographique

47. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "FISH":

Killifish, Banded (Fundulus diaphanus) Newfoundland population
Fondule barré population de Terre-Neuve

48. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Jumping-slug, Warty (Hemphillia glandulosa)
Limace-sauteuse glanduleuse

49. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Admiral, Weidemeyer's (Limenitis weidemeyerii)
Amiral de Weidemeyer

Monarch (Danaux plexippus)
Monarque

50. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Monarch (Danaus plexippus)
Monarque

Weidemeyer's Admiral (Limenitis weidemeyerii)
Amiral de Weidemeyer

51. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Fern, American Hart's-tongue (Asplenium scolopendriumvar. americanum)
Scolopendre d'Amérique

Fern, Coastal Wood (Dryopteris arguta)
Dryoptèride côtière

52. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Fern, American Hart's-tongue (Asplenium scolopendrium)
Scolopendre d'Amérique

Fern, Coastal Wood (Dryopteris arguta)
Dryoptéride côtière

Indian-plantain, Tuberous (Arnoglossum plantagineum)
Arnoglosse plantain

Rose, Climbing Prairie (Rosa setigera)
Rosier sétigère

Thrift, Athabasca (Armeria maritima interior)
Arméria de l'Athabasca

53. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following after the last reference under the heading "PLANTS":

LICHENS

Lichen, Boreal Felt (Erioderma pedicallatum) Boreal population
Érioderme boréal population boréale

54. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Wolverine (gulo gulo) Eastern population
Carcajou population de l'Est

Whale, Right (Eubalaena glacialis)
Baleine noire

55. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Racer, Blue (Coluber constrictor foxii)
Couleuvre agile bleue

56. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following:

FISH

Sucker, Salish (Catostomus sp.)
Meunier de Salish

57. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Mole, Townsend's (Scapanus townsendii)
Taupe de Townsend

Whale, Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) North Pacific population
Rorqual à bosse population du Pacifique Nord

58. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Rattlesnake, Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus)
Crotale Massasauga de l'Est

Turtle, Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera)
Tortue molle à épines

59. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Madtom, Margined (Noturus insignis)
Chat-fou liséré

Sticklebacks, Enos Lake (Gasterosteus spp.)
Épinoches du lac Enos

60. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, White Wood (Eurybia divaricatas)
Aster divariqué

Jacob's Ladder, van Brunt's (Polemonium van-bruntiae)
Polémoine de van Brunt

Lipocarpha, Small-flowered (Lipocarpha micrantha)
Lipocarphe à petites fleurs

Spiderwort, Western (Tradescantia occidentalis)
Tradescantie de l'Ouest

Verbena, Sand (Abronia micrantha)
Abronie à petites fleurs

Violet, Bird's-foot (Viola pedata)
Violette pédalée

61. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Bear, Grizzly (Ursus arctos)
Ours grizzli

Bear, Polar (Ursus maritimus)
Ours polaire

Fox, Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
Renard gris

Whale, Blue (Balaenoptera musculus)
Rorqual bleu

Whale, Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) Western North Atlantic population
Rorqual à bosse population du Nord-ouest de l'Atlantique

Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Western population
Carcajou population de l'Ouest

62. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Curlew, Long-billed (Numenius americanus)
Courlis à long bec

Warbler, Cerulean (Dendroica cerulea)
Paruline azurée

63. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Frog, Northern Leopard (Rana pipiens) Prairie population
Grenouille léopard population des Prairies

Frog, Northern Red-legged (Rana aurora)
Grenouille du Nord à pattes rouges

Salamander, Spring (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus)
Salamandre pourpre

Toad, Great Plains (Bufo cognatus)
Crapaud des steppes

64. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Dace, Speckled (Rhinichthys osculus)
Naseux moucheté

Killifish, Banded (Fundulus diaphanus) Newfoundland population
Fondule barré population de Terre-Neuve

Madtom, Northern (Noturus stigmosus)
Chat-fou du Nord

Prickleback, Pighead (Acantholumpenus mackayi)
Terrassier à six lignes

Sardine, Pacific (Sardinops sagax)
Sardine du Pacifique

Shiner, Pugnose (Notropis anogenus)
Méné camus

Wolffish, Bering (Anarhichas orientalis)
Loup de Bering

65. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, Crooked-stemmed (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)
Aster fausse-prenanthe

Aster, Willow (Symphyotrichum praealtum)
Aster très élevé

Hop-tree, Common (Ptelea trifoliata)
Ptéléa trifolié

Hyacinth, Wild (Camassia scilloides)
Camassie faux-scille

Indian-plantain, Tuberous (Arnoglossum plantagineum)
Arnoglosse plantain

Orchid, Eastern Prairie Fringed (Platanthera leucophaea)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Est

Rose, Climbing Prairie (Rosa setigera)
Rosier sétigère

Thrift, Athabasca (Armeria maritima spp. interior)
Armeria de l'Athabasca

COMING INTO FORCE

66. This Order comes into force on the day on which it is registered.

[43-1-o]

Footnote a

S.C. 2002, c. 29

Footnote 1

S.C. 2002, c. 29