Table 1a: Species at risk included in the action plan for Thousand Islands National Park (TINP).
SpeciesScientific nameCOSEWIC statusSARA status
Species for which this is a SARA action plan
American Water-willowJusticia americanaThreatenedThreatened
ButternutJuglans cinereaEndangeredEndangered
DeerberryVaccinium stamineumThreatenedThreatened
Pugnose ShinerNotropis anogenusThreatenedEndangered

 

Table 1b: Species at risk included in the action plan for Thousand Islands National Park.
SpeciesScientific nameCOSEWIC statusSARA status
Species listed under the SARA for which recovery strategies are not yet posted
American GinsengPanax quinquefoliusEndangeredEndangered
Blanding’s Turtle (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence population)Emydoidea blandingiiThreatenedThreatened
Canada WarblerCardellina canadensisThreatenedThreatened
Common NighthawkChordeiles minorThreatenedThreatened
Eastern Musk TurtleSternotherus odoratusEndangeredEndangered
Golden-winged WarblerVermivora chrysopteraThreatenedThreatened
Gray Ratsnake (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence population)Pantherophis spiloidesThreatenedThreatened
Least BitternIxobrychus exilisThreatenedThreatened
Pale-bellied Frost LichenPhysconia subpallidaEndangeredEndangered
Western Chorus Frog (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence – Canadian Shield population)Pseudacris triseriataThreatenedThreatened
Eastern Whip-poor-willAntrostomus vociferusThreatenedThreatened

 

Table 1c: Species at risk included in the action plan for Thousand Islands National Park.
SpeciesScientific nameCOSEWIC statusSARA status
Special concern species listed under the SARA
Bridle ShinerNotropis bifrenatusSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Cerulean WarblerSetophaga ceruleaEndangeredSpecial Concern
Eastern Ribbonsnake (Great Lakes population)Thamnophis sauritusSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Five-lined Skink (Great Lakes/St. Lawrence population)Plestiodon fasciatusSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Grass PickerelEsox americanus vermiculatusSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
MilksnakeLampropeltis triangulumSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
MonarchDanaus plexippusSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Northern Map TurtleGraptemys geographicaSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Peregrine Falcon (anatum/tundrius)Falco peregrinus anatumSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Rusty BlackbirdEuphagus carolinusSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Snapping TurtleChelydra serpentineSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern
Swamp Rose-mallowHibiscus moscheutosSpecial ConcernSpecial Concern

 

Table 1d: Species at risk included in the action plan for Thousand Islands National Park.
SpeciesScientific nameCOSEWIC statusSARA status
Species of conservation concern not listed under the SARA at this time (may be listed in the future)
American EelAnguilla rostrataThreatenedNot listed
Barn SwallowHirundo rusticaThreatenedNot listed
BobolinkDolichonyx oryzivorusThreatenedNot listed
Eastern MeadowlarkSturnella magnaThreatenedNot listed
Eastern Wood-peweeContopus virensSpecial ConcernNot listed
Little Brown MyotisMyotis lucifugusEndangeredNot listed
Wood ThrushHylocichla mustelinaThreatenedNot listed

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Table 3a: Recovery measures that will be conducted by Thousand Islands National Park.
SpeciesMeasure #MeasureDesired OutcomeHow will progress toward the outcome be measured?Threat or recovery measure addressedTimeline
Wetland Community
Blanding’s Turtle, Eastern Musk Turtle, Least Bittern1Species at risk critical habitat warning sign and no motorized watercraft sign installed at mouth of important wetland shortly after critical habitat is identifiedWork with partners to control motorized watercraft access at mouth of important wetland.Signs installed by fall 2015 if critical habitat identified.Boating mortality (Environment Canada, 2014a & 2014b)2015
Coastal Wetland CommunityFootnote 52Remove early invasions of priorityFootnote 6alien invasive plants from park wetlands.Prevent invasive species from becoming established in park wetlands.If an early invasion is detected (through condition monitoring program, incidental sightings or reports) and is feasible to remove, progress will be determined by the number of plants removed.Exotic and invasive species (Environment Canada, 2011; Environment Canada, 2013a)If invasion detected, the site will be visited annually for at least three years.
Coastal Wetland Community3Re-survey Skoryna and Escott Rd wetlands to determine if Blanding's turtles are present.Increase knowledge of turtle distribution in the park.Surveys completed and data shared with the Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC).Collect population, habitat and threat data to monitor turtles (Environment Canada, 2014a).2016
Swamp Rose-mallow4Assess and remove any immediate alien invasive plant risks around existing Swamp Rose-mallow plants.Reduce threat of invasive alien species to Swamp Rose-mallow.Decrease in number of plants or percent area covered by priority invasive alien plants close to Swamp Rose-mallow.Investigate the feasibility of employing best management practices/known methods of controlling European Common Reed and Hybrid Cattail, and implement these practices where feasible (Environment Canada, 2013a).2019
Pugnose Shiner5Assist the Department of Fisheries and Oceans on signage for critical habitat in the Park and assist with DFO-led research and inventory projects.Increase public awareness of Pugnose Shiner critical habitat and increase knowledge about populations of Pugnose Shiner.Installations of signage related to critical habitat by 2015. Provision of field support to DFO-led research in or near the park.2-1. Coordination with other recovery teams and relevant groups (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2012).2015

 

Table 3b: Recovery measures that will be conducted by Thousand Islands National Park.
SpeciesMeasure #MeasureDesired OutcomeHow will progress toward the outcome be measured?Threat or recovery measure addressedTimeline
Forest Community
Deerberry6Plant and maintain two new Deerberry populations and maintain/
augment two recently planted populations until they are self-sustaining.
Increase number of Deerberry populations in Canada.(1) Number of new populations planted. (2) To ensure populations are persisting, number of stems, flowering heads and number of berries will be counted.Enhance or augment existing populations (Parks Canada Agnecy, 2010a).One new population planted in 2014–2015 and one more in 2016. Augmentation at other two planted populations is dependent on number of available seedlings and maintenance is ongoing until plants are self-seeding (usually about 2-5 years)
Deerberry7Remove all invasive plants within a 50-m buffer of Deerberry on West Grenadier and Endymion islands by 2018 and eventually remove all invasive plants from park property at both locations.Remove threat of invasive species to Deerberry on West Grenadier and Endymion islands.All patches of exotic species (including single plants or larger areas) have been GPS-mapped for both sites by 2016 and patches reduced in size by 2018.Invasive species is a low level threat (Parks Canada Agency, 2010a).2018
Deerberry8Continue to work with private landowner to identify and mitigate threats to non-park population.Maintain partnership with single landowner of the only private population in the country to mitigate threats to Deerberry as needed.Deerberry population on private land remains healthy and viable.Continue to work with private landowner on stewardship of non-park population (Parks Canada Agency, 2010a).Ongoing
Deerberry9Re-route trails away from Deerberry populations on West Grenadier Island and enforce closure of a portion of the trail.Closure of the portion of West Grenadier trail that runs through Deerberry population by fall 2014.Sign erected to close portion of trail.Plan and effect re-routing of trails away from Deerberry populations (Parks Canada Agency, 2010a).Re-route by 2015, enforcement ongoing.
Deerberry10Collaborate with agencies in the USA to obtain more information on New York populations.List of known locations and sizes of NY populations by 2018.Data obtained by 2018.Collaborate with agencies in the USA to obtain more information on New York populations (Parks Canada Agency, 2010a).2018
Five-lined Skink11Increase number of cover objects on Fitzsimmons Mountain.Microhabitat restored on Fitzsimmons Mountain by Winter 2014.An increase in number of cover objects, percent cover and number of skinks on Fitzsimmons Mountain rock barrenMaintain, and if possible, increase the amount of habitat and microhabitat available for Five-lined Skinks (Environment Canada, 2013b).2016
Five-lined Skink12Monitor effects of new Landon Bay trail on Five-lined Skink.Monitor usage and potential impacts of new trail at Landon Bay after opening in order to respond to any increased threats to the skinks.Potential effects on skinks recorded.Conduct threat analysis (recreation) at priority sites across the range of the population (Environment Canada, 2013b).Two years after the Landon Bay trail opens.

 

Table 3c: Recovery measures that will be conducted by Thousand Islands National Park.
SpeciesMeasure #MeasureDesired OutcomeHow will progress toward the outcome be measured?Threat or recovery measure addressedTimeline
Cross-Community
Blanding's Turtle, Five-lined Skink, Gray Ratsnake13Enforce and increase awareness of poaching consequences (including sharing information with partners).Law enforcement involved in regulating potential poaching threats, and messaging provided regarding consequences of poaching.Enforcement officers involved when needed and messaging provided to partners and the public.Ensure existing laws and regulations are being enforced and raise awareness to reduce collecting (Environment Canada, 2014a); Promote compliance with existing legislation (Environment Canada, 2013b).Ongoing
All14Ensure provincial departments, conservation authorities and municipal governments are aware of SAR hotspots for consideration in official land-use plans. Provide input into development proposals that are referred by the Cataraqui Region Conservation Authority.Share observations and sensitive habitat locations with conservation partners.Annual updates to species at risk database with any priority observations (new area, very vulnerable species, non-park land sensitive to development) reported directly to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources SAR biologists.Encourage the submission of all records for all turtle species to the province (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c).Ongoing
All15Work with partners to promote the protection of key species dispersal habitats. Work in partnership with the Leeds and Grenville Stewardship Council on issues related to gray ratsnake outreach and species at risk protection.All partners consider landscape ecology in SARdecisions.Attend partner meetings, keep key partners involved in park species at risk planning. Provide advice on initiatives.Promote protection of high ranking habitat parcels or networks through partners (municipalities, The Nature Conservancy of Canada, Ontario Parks, stewardship councils) and initiate acquisition, agreements, easements, etc. (Kraus et al., 2010).Ongoing

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Table 4a: Recovery measures that will be conducted by Thousand Islands National Park and/or partners only if resources become available.
SpeciesMeasure #MeasureDesired OutcomeHow will progress toward the outcome be measured?Threat or recovery action addressed
Wetland Community
All Turtles16Continue investigating Thousand Islands Parkway turtle mortality hot spots and mitigations. Participate in partner led road mortality mitigation projects on the Thousand Islands Parkway and Highway 401.Clearly understand where (or if) there are priority locations to invest in road mortality mitigation.Report produced with hotspots identified.Identify areas with high road mortality rates and implement mitigation approaches (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c).
All Turtles17Public outreach to help reduce road mortality.Reduce turtle road mortality.Outreach delivered to all park visitors.Identify areas with high road mortality rates. Develop, assess, and where feasible, implement appropriate mitigation approaches (e.g., eco-passages across roads) to reduce mortality in these areas (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c).
All Turtles18Work with St. Lawrence Parks Commission to ensure Thousand Islands Parkway shoulders aren't tilled after turtle eggs are laid.Destruction of turtle eggs due to tilling stopped.Shoulder tilling guidelines implemented.Develop and share, or use existing (and improve, if needed), beneficial management practices (BMPs) for the general public, landowners, land managers, and industry (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c).
All Turtles19Work with partners to mitigate turtle by-catch mortality in commercial fishing nets.Reduce number of turtles killed in fishing netsSuccessful net mortality mitigations developed and implemented in all wetlands (and riverine environments) that TINP turtle populations use at any point in their life cycle.Where feasible, employ techniques to reduce turtle mortality from accidental fishing bycatch (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c).
All Turtles20Provide turtle safety messaging to boaters around Central Grenadier and Mallorytown Landing.Promote awareness and reduce turtle mortality around docking areas.Species at risk warning and interpretation signs installed at Central Grenadier and Mallorytown Landing and interpreters include turtles as regular messaging to visitors.Identify areas with high rates of mortality from motorboats. Develop, assess, and, where feasible, implement appropriate mitigation approaches to reduce mortality in these areas (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c).
Coastal Wetland Community21Assess viability of conducting hemi-marsh restoration in the Jones Creek wetland complex.(1) Determine the viability/desirability of restoration; (2) If criteria are met, complete hemi-marsh restoration.Completion of viability assessment and increase in amount of hemi-marsh in Jones Creek after restoration.Investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of different techniques for maintaining and creating open wetland areas, including prescribed burns or other artificial disturbance, within the Canadian range of Swamp Rose-mallow; Implement the appropriate techniques where feasible (Environment Canada, 2013a).
Coastal Wetland Community22Work with partners to assess the viability of conducting hemi-marsh restoration in west portion of Thompson Bay (an important component of the Grenadier Island wetland complex)(1) Determine the viability/desirability of restoration; (2) If criteria are met and partner support is available, complete hemi-marsh restoration.Completion of viability assessment and increase in amount of hemi-marsh in Thompson Bay after restorationInvestigate the feasibility and effectiveness of different techniques for maintaining and creating open wetland areas, including prescribed burns or other artificial disturbance, within the Canadian range of Swamp Rose-mallow; Implement the appropriate techniques where feasible (Environment Canada, 2013a).
Eastern Musk Turtle23Complete Eastern Musk Turtle inventory around TINP lands in Mallorytown Landing.Distribution of musk turtles known in Mallorytown Landing.Data collected and sent to the NHIC.Collect population, habitat and threat data to monitor turtles (Environment Canada, 2014b).
Least Bittern24Survey Skoryna property wetland and re-survey park wetlands to determine/confirm Least Bittern statusLeast Bittern distribution in the park determined.Skoryna survey completed and other priority park wetlands re-surveyed for Least Bittern.Conduct surveys and habitat assessments at priority sites as per Least Bittern recovery strategy (Environment Canada, 2011).
Swamp Rose-mallow25Complete full Swamp Rose-mallow inventory of south and southwest shorelines of Main Duck Island.Swamp Rose-mallow distribution known for Main Duck Island.Data collected and sent to the NHIC.Assess and monitor the distribution and habitat, population sizes and trends of Swamp Rose-mallow (Environment Canada, 2013a).
Bridle Shiner, Pugnose Shiner and Grass Pickerel26Cooperate with OMNR, DFO and university partners to survey Jones Creek complex, Brooker’s Creek, Adelaide Island, east Hill Island, Skoryna, Escott Rd. and Polly Creek pond for Bridle Shiner, Pugnose Shiner and Grass Pickerel.Park distribution of species at risk fish determined.Completion of survey at all seven wetlands and data shared with the NHIC.Conduct targeted surveys at new, suspected, and historic locations (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2012) with advice from DFO.
Coastal Wetland Community27Retain TINP forest and wetlands adjacent to important TINP wetlands with known Blanding's Turtle, Eastern Musk Turtle and Least Bittern observations and work with partners/landowners to promote forest/wetland retention in these adjacent areas.Ensure suitable terrestrial habitat for wetland species at risk.Meet thresholds for adequate habitat (Zorn, 2012) for each park management planning cycle. For adjacent lands: locations and corresponding landowners/partners identified and communicated with.Protect areas large enough to maintain viable populations and increase connectivity (Environment Canada, 2014a, 2014b).
Blanding's Turtle28Create turtle-friendly eco-passage under County Road 5 near Polly Creek (initiate by getting involved in culvert planning process).Reduce turtle road mortality.Become involved in culvert planning process; eco-passage under County Road 5 created.Identify areas with high road mortality rates. Develop, assess, and, where feasible, implement appropriate mitigation approaches (e.g., eco-passages across roads) to reduce mortality in these areas (Environment Canada, 2014a).
Blanding's Turtle29Communicate with landowners adjacent to TINP to promote stewardship and nest protection.Landowners protect turtles and turtle habitat.Ongoing messaging to priority landowners adjacent to TINP.Identify areas with high rates of nest predation and employ, where feasible and with appropriate permits in place, known techniques to protect nests and reduce predation (Environment Canada, 2014a).
Swamp Rose-mallow30Augment Swamp Rose-mallow population to self-sustaining, genetically viable level if feasible.Increase population to self-sustaining, genetically viable level as determined by genetic testing and life history traits.Feasibility of population augmentation determined and population augmentedN/a

 

Table 4b: Recovery measures that will be conducted by Thousand Islands National Park and/or partners only if resources become available.
SpeciesMeasure #MeasureDesired OutcomeHow will progress toward the outcome be measured?Threat or recovery action addressed
Forest Community
Butternut31Complete canker and site condition surveys for all known park Butternut, collect seeds from potentially resistant trees and share any data about canker-resistant trees or identify sites that promote localized recruitment / canker resistance to Butternut working group.Create seed bank of any canker-resistant trees in the park.Percentage of trees inspected for canker.Locate and monitor putatively resistant trees; Coordinate a seed collection program from resistant trees; Store backup seed/germplasm of resistant trees (Environment Canada, 2010).
Deerberry32Collaborate with the Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve, St. Lawrence Parks Commission, and Niagara Parks Commission to identify and protect potential habitat for species dispersal.Ensure habitat exists to support future Deerberry populations.Suitable habitat identified and protected on lands adjacent to the park.Incorporate restoration of Deerberry into oak forest/savanna restoration measures being done by the Niagara Parks Commission (Parks Canada, 2010a).
Deerberry33Work with partners to determine conditions required for successful seedling establishment and habitat maintenance including the effect of fire, life history traits, pollination, and dispersal vectors.Effectively manage habitat for Deerberry within the park.Research measures identified in Deerberry restoration strategy have been initiated.Collect and cultivate a stock of cuttings and seeds from the two regions (underway); Continue to develop and improve a habitat model for Deerberry incorporating fire history and other life history and landscape variables as they become available (Parks Canada, 2010a).
Five-lined Skink34Finish previously initiated Five-lined Skink habitat suitability index and complete inventory on all new suitable properties to determine distribution in the park.Determine occupancy of suitable habitat in the park.Habitat suitability index and park inventory completed.Conduct surveys for Five-lined Skinks at priority sites along with studies of habitat use, typical movements and dispersal abilities in order to obtain better population-level data and to identify which element occurrences are viable (Environment Canada, 2013b).
Five-lined Skink35Work with researchers to identify TINP skink population dynamics, including population inventory, viability (numbers) and connections between different observations.Learn about Five-lined Skinks in the area to determine the best ways to protect and recover populations.(1) Inventories completed. (2) Population viability assessments developed. (3) Understanding of connections between park populations developed.Conduct surveys for Five-lined Skinks at priority sites along with studies of habitat use, typical movements and dispersal abilities in order to obtain better population-level data and to identify which element occurrences are viable (Environment Canada, 2013b).
Five-lined Skink36Assess state of currently occupied habitats and determine if it is necessary to re-introduce fire/stop succession in priority habitats.Determine if disturbance restorations are necessary for park populations.Best management practices developed for skink habitat.Develop and implement habitat conservation guideline (Environment Canada, 2013b).
Gray Ratsnake37Conduct telemetry studies on mainland properties to identify new hibernacula sites.Identification of all hibernacula on mainland properties.Data recorded and shared with the NHIC.Clarify essential habitat features associated with specific life history stages (Kraus et al. 2010).
Gray Ratsnake38Work with partners to determine the location of and maintain/improve connectivity between adjacent hibernacula where juvenile recruitment is necessary to sustain TINP populations (Including U.S. populations - namely Wellesley Island).With the help of partners ensure the maintenance of and connectivity with hibernacula adjacent to park properties.Maintenance of ongoing relationship with partners to share information about populations and best management practices.Determine how genetic connectivity among sub-populations is maintained. This includes the relative importance of different mechanisms such as juvenile dispersal, adult dispersal and multiple paternity (Kraus et al. 2010).

Promote protection of high ranking habitat parcels or networks through partners (municipalities, The Nature Conservancy of Canada, Ontario Parks, Stewardship Councils) and initiate acquisition, agreements, easements, etc. (Kraus et al. 2010).
Gray Ratsnake39Work with partners to protect broad corridors that facilitate long- and short-term genetic linkages within the Frontenac Arch population.Important corridors for ratsnakes are maintained for the Frontenac Arch population (either through partner acquisition, appropriate land-use planning or private owner stewardship).Land-use planning, private owner stewardship or partner acquisitions are considering ratsnakes and helping protect corridors.Promote protection of high ranking habitat parcels or networks through partners (municipalities, The Nature Conservancy of Canada, Ontario Parks, Stewardship Councils) and initiate acquisition, agreements, easements, etc. (Kraus et al. 2010).
Gray Ratsnake40Make priority property acquisitions to connect more hibernacula or work with other partners (e.g., land trusts) to protect key linkages.Acquire lands to add to the park that could help recovery of ratsnakes.Lands that will help with ratsnake recovery efforts are acquired when opportunities arise.Promote protection of high ranking habitat parcels or networks through partners (municipalities, The Nature Conservancy of Canada, Thousand Islands Watershed Land Trust, Ontario Parks, Stewardship Councils)and initiate acquisition, agreements, easements, etc. (Kraus et al. 2010).
Gray Ratsnake41Work with partners to improve the delivery/evaluation of stewardship messaging (including translation of existing partner communication resources).Improve effectiveness of ratsnake outreach messaging.Stewardship messaging is improved and evaluated with park partners to provide better support to park and partner communicators.Develop a communications plan whose target audiences include landowners, land-use planners, natural resource managers and other affected stakeholders (Kraus et al. 2010). Develop strategy for delivery of communication program to appropriate schools, Stewardship Councils, cottage associations, etc. (Kraus et al. 2010). Plan and develop stand alone resource presentation materials for adult audiences to be used by outreach extension volunteers (Kraus et al. 2010).
Gray Ratsnake42Provide interpretation (communicate anti-persecution, snake appreciation) messaging to all Thousand Island Ecosystem school visitors to TINP.Increase respect for snakes among local youth.Anti-persecution/
snake appreciation messaging delivered to all local school groups during visits to the park.
Develop (or improve) and distribute school education kits and lesson plans to schools within the range of Gray Ratsnake and other targeted school districts (Kraus et al. 2010).

 

Table 4c: Recovery measures that will be conducted by Thousand Islands National Park and/or partners only if resources become available.
SpeciesMeasure #MeasureDesired OutcomeHow will progress toward the outcome be measured?Threat or recovery action addressed
Cross-Community
American Ginseng, Cerulean Warbler, King Rail, Little Brown Myotis, Western Chorus Frog43Complete park inventories.Determine park distributions of species at risk to protect individuals and habitat.Data recorded and shared with the NHIC.N/a
Snapping Turtle, Wood Thrush, Eastern Wood Pewee, Barn Swallow, Western Chorus Frog44Complete abundance surveys for newly listed still common species to establish a baseline for future restoration efforts.Establish baseline for species at risk monitoring.Abundance inventories completed for five species that are still currently common on park properties to provide key baseline information for future work.N/a
All45As opportunities arise to acquire property adjacent to TINP, focus on property that is important to SAR.Park is expanded in areas beneficial to SAR.Species at risk considered in land acquisitions.Habitat loss, degradation, and modification (Environment Canada, 2010, 2011; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2012; Parks Canada Agency, 2011).
All46Incorporate Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge into Species at Risk recovery, planning, and action.Incorporation of ATK into Species at Risk recovery at Thousand Islands National Park,
  1. Developing traditional knowledge fact sheets for SARA species that are in the Park.
  2. Developing the content and format for these worksheets by holding a joint workshop.
  3. Developing habitat suitability models or similar information products.
N/a

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