Vol. 139, No. 2 -- January 26, 2005

Registration
SOR/2005-14 January 12, 2005

SPECIES AT RISK ACT

Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act

P.C. 2005-4 January 12, 2005

Her Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, pursuant to section 27 of the Species at Risk Act (see footnote a), hereby makes the annexed Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act.

ORDER AMENDING SCHEDULES 1 TO 3 TO
THE SPECIES AT RISK ACT

AMENDMENTS

1. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (see footnote 1) is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Grouse, Sage (Centrocercus urophasianus phaios) British Columbia population
Tétras des armoises population de la Colombie-Britannique

2. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Sage-Grouse phaios subspecies, Greater (Centrocercus urophasianus phaios)
Tétras des armoises de la sous-espèce phaios

3. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Lizard, Pigmy Short-horned (Phrynosoma douglassii douglassii) British Columbia population
Iguane pygmée à cornes courtes population de la Colombie-Britannique

4. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "REPTILES":

Gophersnake, Pacific (Pituophis catenifer catenifer)
Couleuvre à nez mince du Pacifique

Lizard, Pigmy Short-horned (Phrynosoma douglasii) British Columbia population
Iguane pygmée à cornes courtes population de la Colombie-Britannique

Turtle, Pacific Pond(Actinemys marmorata)
Tortue de l'Ouest

5. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Snail, Puget Oregonian (Cryptomastix devia)
Escargot du Puget

6. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Elfin, Frosted (Callophrys irus, Incisalia irus)
Lutin givré

7. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Elfin, Frosted (Callophrys [Incisalia] irus)
Lutin givré

8. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Mary, Spring Blue-eyed (Collinsia verna)
Collinsie printanière

9. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Spring Blue-eyed Mary (Collinsia verna)
Collinsie printanière

10. Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following after the last reference under the heading "PLANTS":

MOSSES

Moss, Incurved Grizzled (Ptychomitrium incurvum)
Ptychomitre à feuilles incurvées

11. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Badger jacksoni subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jacksoni)
Blaireau d'Amérique, jacksoni

Badger jeffersonii subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jeffersonii)
Blaireau d'Amérique, jeffersonii

Marten, American (Martes americana atrata) Newfoundland population
Martre d'Amérique population de Terre-Neuve

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific southern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du Sud du Pacifique Nord-Est

12. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MAMMALS":

Badger jacksoni subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jacksoni)
Blaireau d'Amérique de la sous-espèce jacksoni

Badger jeffersonii subspecies, American (Taxidea taxus jeffersonii)
Blaireau d'Amérique de la sous-espèce jeffersonii

Marten, Newfoundland (Martes americana atrata)
Martre de Terre-Neuve

Mole, Townsend's (Scapanus townsendii)
Taupe de Townsend

Whale, Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) Atlantic population
Rorqual bleu population de l'Atlantique

Whale, Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) Pacific population
Rorqual bleu population du Pacifique

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific southern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du sud du Pacifique Nord-Est

Whale, North Atlantic Right (Eubalaena glacialis)
Baleine noire de l'Atlantique Nord

Whale, Sei (Balaenoptera borealis) Pacific population
Rorqual boréal population du Pacifique

Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Eastern population
Carcajou population de l'Est

13. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat, Western Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens auricollis) British Columbia population
Paruline polyglotte de l'Ouest population de la Colombie-Britannique

Grouse, Sage (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) Prairie population
Tétras des armoises population des Prairies

Owl, Burrowing (Speotyto cunicularia)
Chevêche des terriers

Owl, Northern Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina)
Chouette tachetée du Nord

Plover circumcinctus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus circumcinctus)
Pluvier siffleur, circumcinctus

Plover melodus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus melodus)
Pluvier siffleur, melodus

Shrike, Eastern Loggerhead (Lanius ludovicianus migrans)
Pie-grièche migratrice de l'Est

14. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat auricollis subspecies, Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens auricollis) British Columbia population
Paruline polyglotte de la sous-espèce auricollis population de la Colombie-Britannique

Owl, Burrowing (Athene cunicularia)
Chevêche des terriers

Owl caurina subspecies, Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina)
Chouette tachetée de la sous-espèce caurina

Plover circumcinctus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus circumcinctus)
Pluvier siffleur de la sous-espèce circumcinctus

Plover melodus subspecies, Piping (Charadrius melodus melodus)
Pluvier siffleur de la sous-espèce melodus

Sage-Grouse urophasianus subspecies, Greater (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus)
Tétras des armoises de la sous-espèce urophasianus

Screech-owl macfarlanei subspecies, Western (Megascops kennicottii macfarlanei)
Petit-duc des montagnes de la sous-espèce macfarlanei

Shrike migrans subspecies, Loggerhead (Lanius ludovicianus migrans)
Pie-grièche migratrice de la sous-espèce migrans

15. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Snake, Night (Hypsiglena torquata)
Couleuvre nocturne

Turtle, Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea)
Tortue luth

16. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "REPTILES":

Nightsnake (Hypsiglena torquata)
Couleuvre nocturne

Racer, Blue (Coluber constrictor foxii)
Couleuvre agile bleue

Seaturtle, Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea)
Tortue luth

17. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Salmon, Atlantic (Salmo salar)
Saumon d'Atlantique populations de l'intérieur de la baie de Fundy

18. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "FISH":

Madtom, Northern (Noturus stigmosus)
Chat-fou du Nord

Salmon, Atlantic (Salmo salar) Inner Bay of Fundy populations
Saumon atlantique populations de l'intérieur de la baie de Fundy

Shiner, Pugnose (Notropis anogenus)
Méné camus

Stickleback, Benthic Enos Lake (Gasterosteus sp.)
Épinoche benthique du lac Enos

Stickleback, Limnetic Enos Lake (Gasterosteus sp.)
Épinoche limnétique du lac Enos

Sucker, Salish (Catostomus sp.)
Meunier de Salish

19. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Mussel, Mudpuppy (Simpsonais ambigua)
Mulette du Necturus

Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)
Epioblasme tricorn

20. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Forestsnail, Oregon (Allogona townsendiana)
Escargot-forestier de Townsend

Hickorynut, Round (Obovaria subrotunda)
Obovarie ronde

Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus fasciolaris)
Ptychobranche réniforme

Mussel, Mudpuppy (Simpsonaias ambigua)
Mulette du Necturus

Snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra)
Épioblasme tricorne

21. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Metalmark, Mormon (Apodemia mormo) Southern Mountain population
Mormon population des montagnes du Sud

Moth, Yucca (Tegeticula yuccasella)
Teigne du yucca

22. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Ammania, Scarlet (Ammannia robusta)
Ammannie robuste

Bluehearts (Buchnera americana)
Buchnera d'Amérique

Bugbane, Tall (Cimicifuga elata)
Cimicaire élevée

Bulrush, Bashful (Trichophorum planifolium)
Scirpe timide

Bush-Clover, Slender (Lespedeza virginica)
Lespédèze de Virginie

Ginseng, American (Panax quinquefolium)
Ginseng à cinq folioles

Goldenrod, Showy (Solidago speciosa var. rigidiuscula)
Verge d'or voyante

Mountain-Mint, Hoary (Pycnanthemum incanum)
Pycnanthème gris

Orchid, Western Prairie Fringed (Platanthera praeclara)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Ouest

Owl-Clover, Bearded (Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor)
Triphysaire versicolore

Sedge, Juniper (Carex juniperorum)
Carex des Genévriers

Virginia Goat's-rue (Tephrosia virginiana)
Téphrosie de Virginie

Wintergreen, Spotted (Chimaphila maculata)
Chimaphile maculé

Wood-Poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)
Stylophore à deux feuilles

23. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Ammannia, Scarlet (Ammannia robusta)
Ammannie robuste

Bluehearts (Buchnera americana)
Buchnéra d'Amérique

Bugbane, Tall (Actaea elata)
Cimicaire élevée

Bulrush, Bashful (Trichophorum planifolium)
Trichophore à feuilles plates

Bush-clover, Slender (Lespedeza virginica)
Lespédèze de Virginie

Catchfly, Coastal Scouler's (Silene scouleri grandis)
Grand silène de Scouler

Fringed-Orchid, Eastern Prairie (Platanthera leucophaea)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Est

Fringed-orchid, Western Prairie (Platanthera praeclara)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Ouest

Ginseng, American (Panax quinquefolius)
Ginseng à cinq folioles

Goat's-rue, Virginia (Tephrosia virginiana)
Téphrosie de Virginie

Goldenrod, Showy (Solidago speciosa)
Verge d'or voyante

Grass, Forked Three-awned (Aristida basiramea)
Aristide à rameaux basilaires

Lipocarpha, Small-flowered (Lipocarpha micrantha)
Lipocarphe à petites fleurs

Lupine, Streambank (Lupinus rivularis)
Lupin des ruisseaux

Mountain-mint, Hoary (Pycnanthemum incanum)
Pycnanthème gris

Owl-clover, Bearded (Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor)
Triphysaire versicolore

Rush, Kellogg's (Juncus kelloggii)
Jonc de Kellogg

Sand-verbena, Small-flowered (Tripterocalyx micranthus)
Abronie à petites fleurs

Sedge, Juniper (Carex juniperorum)
Carex des genévriers

Triteleia, Howell's (Triteleia howellii)
Tritéléia de Howell

Violet, Bird's-foot (Viola pedata)
Violette pédalée

Wintergreen, Spotted (Chimaphila maculata)
Chimaphile maculée

Wood-poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)
Stylophore à deux feuilles

24. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LICHENS":

Lichen, Boreal Felt (Erioderma pedicellatum)Atlantic population
Érioderme boréal population de l'Atlantique

25. Part 2 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOSSES":

Moss, Margined Streamside (Scouleria marginata)
Scoulérie à feuilles marginées

Moss, Silver Hair (Fabronia pusilla)
Fabronie naine

Moss, Spoon-leaved (Bryoandersonia illecebra)
Andersonie charmante

26. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Ermine haidarum subspecies (Mustela erminea haidarum)
Hermine, haidarum

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific northern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du Nord Pacifique Nord-Est

27. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MAMMALS":

Ermine haidarum subspecies (Mustela erminea haidarum)
Hermine de la sous-espèce haidarum

Fox, Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
Renard gris

Whale, Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) North Pacific population
Rorqual à bosse population du Pacifique Nord

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific northern resident population
Épaulard population résidente du nord du Pacifique Nord-Est

28. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Falcon Anatum, Peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum)
Faucon pèlerin, anatum

Goshawk, Queen Charlotte (Accipiter gentilis laingi)
Autour des palombes des îles de la Reine-Charlotte

29. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Falcon anatum subspecies, Peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum)
Faucon pèlerin de la sous-espèce anatum

Goshawk laingi subspecies, Northern (Accipiter gentilis laingi)
Autour des palombes de la sous-espèce laingi

30. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Great Basin Spadefoot (Spea intermontana)
Crapaud du Grand Bassin

Salamander, Pacific Giant (Dicamptodon tenebrosus)
Grande salamandre

31. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Salamander, Coastal Giant (Dicamptodon tenebrosus)
Grande salamandre

Spadefoot, Great Basin (Spea intermontana)
Crapaud du Grand Bassin

32. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Snake, Black Rat (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta)
Couleuvre obscure

Snake, Eastern Fox (Elaphe vulpina gloydi)
Couleuvre fauve de l'Est

33. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "REPTILES":

Foxsnake, Eastern (Elaphe gloydi)
Couleuvre fauve de l'Est

Gophersnake, Great Basin (Pituophis catenifer deserticola)
Couleuvre à nez mince du Grand Bassin

Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)
Massasauga

Ratsnake, Eastern (Elaphe obsoleta)
Couleuvre obscure de l'Est

Ribbonsnake, Eastern (Thamnophis sauritus)Atlantic population
Couleuvre mince population de l'Atlantique

Softshell, Spiny (Apalone spinifera)
Tortue-molle à épines

Stinkpot (Sternotherus odoratus)
Tortue musquée

34. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Sculpin, Cultus Pygmy (Cottus sp.)
Chabot pygmé

Shiner, Rosyface (Notropis rubellus) Eastern population
Tête rose population de l'Est

35. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "FISH":

Sculpin, Cultus Pygmy (Cottus sp.)
Chabot pygmée

Shiner, Carmine (Notropis percobromus)
Tête carmin

36. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Jumping-slug, Dromedary (Hemphillia dromedarius)
Limace-sauteuse dromadaire

37. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Metalmark, Mormon (Apodemia mormo)Prairie population
Mormon population des Prairies

38. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, Western Silver-leaved (Symphyotrichum sericeum)
Aster soyeux

Colicroot (Aletris farinosa)
Aletris farineux

Fern, Mexican Mosquito (Azolla mexicana)
Azolle du Mexique

Orchid, Phantom (Cephalanthera austiniae)
Cephalanthère d'Austin

Star, Dense Blazing (Liatris spicata)
Liatris à épi

39. Part 3 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, Crooked-stem (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)
Aster fausse-prenanthe

Aster, Western Silvery (Symphyotrichum sericeum)
Aster soyeux

Aster, White Wood (Eurybia divaricata)
Aster divariqué

Aster, Willowleaf (Symphyotrichum praealtum)
Aster très élevé

Blazing Star, Dense (Liatris spicata)
Liatris à épi

Colicroot (Aletris farinosa)
Alétris farineux

Daisy, Lakeside (Hymenoxys herbacea)
Hyménoxys herbacé

Fern, Lemmon's Holly (Polystichum lemmonii)
Polystic de Lemmon

Hoptree, Common (Ptelea trifoliata)
Ptéléa trifolié

Hyacinth, Wild (Camassia scilloides)
Camassie faux-scille

Jacob's-ladder, Van Brunt's (Polemonium vanbruntiae)
Polémoine de Van Brunt

Mosquito-fern, Mexican (Azolla mexicana)
Azolle du Mexique

Orchid, Phantom (Cephalanthera austiniae)
Céphalanthère d'Austin

Spiderwort, Western (Tradescantia occidentalis)
Tradescantie de l'Ouest

40. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific offshore population
Épaulard population au large du Pacifique Nord-Est

41. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MAMMALS":

Caribou, Woodland (Rangifer tarandus caribou) Northern Mountain population
Caribou des bois population des montagnes du Nord

Whale, Killer (Orcinus orca) Northeast Pacific offshore population
Épaulard population océanique du Pacifique Nord-Est

42. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat, Eastern Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens virens)
Paruline polyglotte de l'Est

Falcon, Peale's Peregrine (Falco peregrinus pealei)
Faucon pèlerin, pealei

Sparrow, "Ipswich" Savannah (Passerculus sandwichensis princeps)
Bruant des prés, princeps

43. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "BIRDS":

Chat virens subspecies, Yellow-breasted (Icteria virens virens)
Paruline polyglotte de la sous-espèce virens

Curlew, Long-billed (Numenius americanus)
Courlis à long bec

Falcon pealei subspecies, Peregrine (Falco peregrinus pealei)
Faucon pèlerin de la sous-espèce pealei

Screech-owl kennicottii subspecies, Western (Megascops kennicottii kennicottii)
Petit-duc des montagnes de la sous-espèce kennicottii

Sparrow princeps subspecies, Savannah (Passerculus sandwichensis princeps)
Bruant des prés de la sous-espèce princeps

Warbler, Cerulean (Dendroica cerulea)
Paruline azurée

44. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Salamander, Cœur d'Alène (Plethodon idahoensis)
Salamandre Cœur d'Alène

45. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Frog, Northern Leopard (Rana pipiens) Western Boreal/Prairie populations
Grenouille léopard populations boréales de l'Ouest/des Prairies

Frog, Red-legged (Rana aurora)
Grenouille à pattes rouges

Salamander, Coeur d'Alene (Plethodon idahoensis)
Salamandre de Coeur d'Alène

Salamander, Spring (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus)
Salamandre pourpre

Toad, Great Plains (Bufo cognatus)
Crapaud des steppes

Toad, Western (Bufo boreas)
Crapaud de l'Ouest

46. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following after the last reference under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

REPTILES

Boa, Rubber (Charina bottae)
Boa caoutchouc

Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum)
Couleuvre tachetée

Ribbonsnake, Eastern (Thamnophis sauritus) Great Lakes population
Couleuvre mince population des Grands Lacs

Skink, Western (Eumeces skiltonianus)
Scinque de l'Ouest

Turtle, Northern Map (Graptemys geographica)
Tortue géographique

47. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "FISH":

Killifish, Banded (Fundulus diaphanus) Newfoundland population
Fondule barré population de Terre-Neuve

48. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "MOLLUSCS":

Jumping-slug, Warty (Hemphillia glandulosa)
Limace-sauteuse glanduleuse

49. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Admiral, Weidemeyer's (Limenitis weidemeyerii)
Amiral de Weidemeyer

Monarch (Danaux plexippus)
Monarque

50. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "LEPIDOPTERANS":

Monarch (Danaus plexippus)
Monarque

Weidemeyer's Admiral (Limenitis weidemeyerii)
Amiral de Weidemeyer

51. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Fern, American Hart's-tongue (Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum)
Scolopendre d'Amérique

Fern, Coastal Wood (Dryopteris arguta)
Dryoptèride côtière

52. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following in alphabetical order under the heading "PLANTS":

Fern, American Hart's-tongue (Asplenium scolopendrium)
Scolopendre d'Amérique

Fern, Coastal Wood (Dryopteris arguta)
Dryoptéride côtière

Indian-plantain, Tuberous (Arnoglossum plantagineum)
Arnoglosse plantain

Rose, Climbing Prairie (Rosa setigera)
Rosier sétigère

Thrift, Athabasca (Armeria maritima interior)
Arméria de l'Athabasca

53. Part 4 of Schedule 1 to the Act is amended by adding the following after the last reference under the heading "PLANTS":

LICHENS

Lichen, Boreal Felt (Erioderma pedicallatum) Boreal population
Érioderme boréal population boréale

54. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Whale, Right (Eubalaena glacialis)
Baleine noire

Wolverine (gulo gulo) Eastern population
Carcajou population de l'Est

55. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Racer, Blue (Coluber constrictor foxii)
Couleuvre agile bleue

56. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following:

FISH

Sucker, Salish (Catostomus sp.)
Meunier de Salish

57. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Mole, Townsend's (Scapanus townsendii)
Taupe de Townsend

Whale, Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) North Pacific population
Rorqual à bosse population du Pacifique Nord

58. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "REPTILES":

Rattlesnake, Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus)
Crotale Massasauga de l'Est

Turtle, Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera)
Tortue molle à épines

59. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Madtom, Margined (Noturus insignis)
Chat-fou liséré

Sticklebacks, Enos Lake (Gasterosteus spp.)
Épinoches du lac Enos

60. Part 2 of Schedule 2 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, White Wood (Eurybia divaricatas)
Aster divariqué

Jacob's Ladder, van Brunt's (Polemonium van-bruntiae)
Polémoine de van Brunt

Lipocarpha, Small-flowered (Lipocarpha micrantha)
Lipocarphe à petites fleurs

Spiderwort, Western (Tradescantia occidentalis)
Tradescantie de l'Ouest

Verbena, Sand (Abronia micrantha)
Abronie à petites fleurs

Violet, Bird's-foot (Viola pedata)
Violette pédalée

61. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "MAMMALS":

Bear, Grizzly (Ursus arctos)
Ours grizzli

Bear, Polar (Ursus maritimus)
Ours polaire

Fox, Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
Renard gris

Whale, Blue (Balaenoptera musculus)
Rorqual bleu

Whale, Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) Western North Atlantic population
Rorqual à bosse population du Nord-ouest de l'Atlantique

Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Western population
Carcajou population de l'Ouest

62. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "BIRDS":

Curlew, Long-billed (Numenius americanus)
Courlis à long bec

Warbler, Cerulean (Dendroica cerulea)
Paruline azurée

63. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "AMPHIBIANS":

Frog, Northern Leopard (Rana pipiens) Prairie population
Grenouille léopard population des Prairies

Frog, Northern Red-legged (Rana aurora)
Grenouille du Nord à pattes rouges

Salamander, Spring (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus)
Salamandre pourpre

Toad, Great Plains (Bufo cognatus)
Crapaud des steppes

64. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "FISH":

Dace, Speckled (Rhinichthys osculus)
Naseux moucheté

Killifish, Banded (Fundulus diaphanus) Newfoundland population
Fondule barré population de Terre-Neuve

Madtom, Northern (Noturus stigmosus)
Chat-fou du Nord

Prickleback, Pighead (Acantholumpenus mackayi)
Terrassier à six lignes

Sardine, Pacific (Sardinops sagax)
Sardine du Pacifique

Shiner, Pugnose (Notropis anogenus)
Méné camus

Wolffish, Bering (Anarhichas orientalis)
Loup de Bering

65. Schedule 3 to the Act is amended by striking out the following under the heading "PLANTS":

Aster, Crooked-stemmed (Symphyotrichum prenanthoides)
Aster fausse-prenanthe

Aster, Willow (Symphyotrichum praealtum)
Aster très élevé

Hop-tree, Common (Ptelea trifoliata)
Ptéléa trifolié

Hyacinth, Wild (Camassia scilloides)
Camassie faux-scille

Indian-plantain, Tuberous (Arnoglossum plantagineum)
Arnoglosse plantain

Orchid, Eastern Prairie Fringed (Platanthera leucophaea)
Platanthère blanchâtre de l'Est

Rose, Climbing Prairie (Rosa setigera)
Rosier sétigère

Thrift, Athabasca (Armeria maritima spp. interior)
Armeria de l'Athabasca

COMING INTO FORCE

66. This Order comes into force on the day on which it is registered.

REGULATORY IMPACT
ANALYSIS STATEMENT

(This statement is not part of the Order.)

Description

Schedule 1, the List of Wildlife Species at Risk of the Species at Risk Act (SARA), is amended by Order of the Governor in Council (GIC), on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, by the addition of 73 species. This Order is based on scientific assessments by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and follows consultations with provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, stakeholders and the public, and analysis of costs and benefits to Canadians.

The SARA received Royal Assent in December 2002, after extensive consultation with provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, environmental organizations, industry and the general public. The majority of the provisions of the Act came into force in June 2003; the prohibitions and enforcement provisions entered into force in June 2004. At the time of Royal Assent, 233 species were included in Schedule 1.

The purpose of SARA is threefold: to prevent wildlife species from being extirpated or becoming extinct; to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity; and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened. SARA complements provincial and territorial legislation as well as existing federal legislation (e.g., the Canada National Parks Act, the Canada Wildlife Act,the Fisheries Act, the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 and the Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act).

SARA provides for additional species to be added to or removed from Schedule 1, or for their status to be changed, following their assessment by COSEWIC and consultations with Canadians, by means of an Order issued by the GIC.

SARA establishes COSEWIC as an independent, scientific advisory body on the status of species at risk. The Committee's primary function is to assess the level of risk for wildlife species based on the best available information on the biological status of a species, including scientific knowledge, Aboriginal traditional knowledge and community knowledge. This assessment is based on biological factors identified in detailed status reports and the application of assessment criteria.

The degree of risk to a species is categorized according to the terms: extirpated, endangered, threatened and special concern. A species is assessed by COSEWIC as extirpated when it no longer exists in the wild in Canada but still exists elsewhere in the wild. It is endangered if it is facing imminent extirpation or extinction, and threatened if the species is likely to become endangered if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to its extirpation or extinction. Special concern status is given to a species if it may become threatened or endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.

In the case of federally managed species, adding a species to Schedule 1 as extirpated, endangered or threatened under SARA leads to prohibitions on killing, harming, harassing, capturing or taking an individual of a wildlife species, or damaging or destroying its residences. There are also prohibitions against possessing, collecting, buying, selling or trading individuals of a wildlife species listed as an endangered or threatened species. These prohibitions apply automatically in the case of migratory birds protected by the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994,aquatic species, and those species occurring on federal lands. For all species listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened, a recovery strategy must be prepared within fixed timelines and at least one action plan must be prepared following the development of the recovery strategy. For species listed as special concern, a management plan must be prepared. Should species not be effectively protected by the laws of a province or a territory, SARA has provisions that give the federal government the power to make an Order applying prohibitions to secure their protection. The federal government would consult with the jurisdiction concerned before any provisions were invoked.

On April 21, 2004, the GIC acknowledged receipt of the assessments of 79 species that had been assessed by COSEWIC in its meetings of May 2002, November 2002 and May 2003. This action initiated a nine-month timeline during which the GIC may decide whether or not to add these 79 species to Schedule 1 of SARA, or to refer species back to COSEWIC for further consideration or information. Of these 79 species, the GIC has decided, on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, to add 73 species to Schedule 1 but not to add the Cultus Lake and Sakinaw Lake populations of Pacific sockeye salmon, the polar bear, the Northwestern population of the grizzly bear and the Western population of the wolverine. In addition, the GIC has referred the speckled dace assessment back to COSEWIC for further information and consideration.

Of the 73 species added to Schedule 1, 60 are terrestrial species for which the Minister of the Environment is responsible under SARA and 13 are aquatic species for which the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans has primary responsibility under SARA. Of the 13 aquatic species, the Minister of the Environment also has responsibility for 4 of these species as they occur within lands administered by the Parks Canada Agency.

The risk status, as assessed by COSEWIC for each of the 73 species added to Schedule 1 of SARA, is presented in Appendix 1.

Terrestrial Species

Sixty terrestrial species have been added to Schedule 1 of SARA. These include terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, terrestrial molluscs, plants, mosses and lichens.

Terrestrial Mammals

The four species or populations of terrestrial mammals added to Schedule 1 of SARA are the woodland caribou (Northern Mountain population), wolverine (Eastern population), grey fox and the Townsend's mole. Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are significant threats to all these mammals. Habitat loss lowers the carrying capacity of the ecosystem, resulting in lower population densities. Habitat fragmentation isolates populations, resulting in restricted gene flow and reduced genetic diversity. Habitats do not have to be destroyed or altered to make them unsuitable for some species. The disturbance caused by the mere presence of people and the associated noise can cause some species, such as the wolverine, to avoid the affected area or reduce their chances of breeding successfully. All of the mammals added to Schedule 1, except for the Townsend's mole, also have low birth rates, are long-lived and require extensive home ranges, factors which increase their susceptibility to population declines. Because of the low birth rates and the requirement for large home ranges, it is difficult for these species to regain former population levels.

The grey fox is at the top of the food chain, and so is also subject to bioaccumulation of toxic substances, in particular, persistent organic pollutants. As well, a reduction in prey species may have contributed to the reduction in populations of large carnivores.

Both the grey fox and the Townsend's mole reach the northern extent of their distributions in Canada (with most of their ranges in the United States), resulting in very small Canadian ranges, particularly for the Townsend's mole which is restricted to only a few square kilometres. The southern parts of the country occupied by these two species are also the areas where human populations and their impacts are greatest. As a result, these species are seriously threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, cottage development and recreational activities.

Birds

The three bird species added to Schedule 1 are the cerulean warbler, long-billed curlew, and western screech-owl (macfarlanei subspecies and kennicottii subspecies). Habitat loss on breeding, migration and wintering grounds is considered the greatest contributor to the decline of bird populations. Habitat-related problems, not only in Canada but also in other countries, are contributing to declines of the migratory cerulean warbler. This species occurs at the northern extent of its distribution in a restricted range in southern Ontario, where it is limited by climatic conditions, where the habitat may be suboptimal (further reduction in the quality of habitat puts the species at risk), and where human populations and their impacts are greatest. As a result, the warbler is affected by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, draining of wetlands, cottage development and recreational activities.

Both the macfarlanei and kennicottii subspecies of the western screech-owl have been affected by habitat loss to housing and industry. Because they are at the top of their food chains, the reduction of prey species because of habitat loss is a threat. The macfarlanei subspecies is particularly severely affected as only a very small population of the subspecies exists. Human activities, particularly habitat alteration, are likely responsible for the expansion of the barred owl's range into the range of the western screech-owl (kennicottii subspecies). Evidence suggests that the invading owls are preying on the screech-owls and may be contributing to their decline.

Cultivation of native prairie on the nesting grounds of the long-billed curlew have contributed to declines in its numbers and range. Continuing habitat loss and fragmentation are exacerbated by urban encroachment and resource extraction and result in increased predation. Lack of grazing and fire suppression have lead to forest encroachment on intermontane grasslands used by the curlew.

Butterflies and Moths

The yucca moth and the mormon metalmark (Southern Mountain population) added to Schedule 1 are at risk of extirpation because they occur as extremely small and isolated northern outlier populations that occupy very restricted ranges. In addition, these species are habitat specialists; that is, they rely on certain species of plants to complete their life cycles. For example, the yucca moth depends on only one species of plant for survival, the soapweed, which cannot set seed without the yucca moth.

Remnant populations of the Southern Mountain population of the mormon metalmark occur in only one narrow valley in southern British Columbia. The valley is a major transportation and utility corridor. Any application of herbicides or insecticides, or further habitat loss or degradation, threaten to lead to the loss of the outlier population.

Reptiles

The thirteen species, subspecies or populations of reptiles added to Schedule 1 include the Pacific gophersnake, Pacific pond turtle, blue racer, eastern ribbonsnake (Atlantic population and Great Lakes population), great basin gophersnake, massasauga, spiny softshell, stinkpot, northern map turtle, rubber boa, milksnake, and western skink. The Pacific gophersnake, Pacific pond turtle, blue racer, eastern ribbonsnake (Atlantic population and Great Lakes population), great basin gophersnake, massasauga, spiny softshell, northern map turtle, rubber boa, and western skink are peripheral species that reach the northern extent of their ranges in southern Canada. The eastern ribbonsnake (Atlantic population) is one reptile that occurs in Canada as a small, disjunct, northern outlier population, separated from the main part of the species range by hundreds of kilometres. Canadian populations of the massasauga have also become isolated and separated from the species' main range. Such disjunct populations are particularly vulnerable to inbreeding depression and random events, and their habitats are unlikely to be re-colonized if the species become extirpated.

Many of these peripheral species of reptiles are limited by climate, their ranges are necessarily quite small, and they occur in parts of the country that also support the highest human populations. As such, their habitats have been subject to loss, degradation and fragmentation as a result of human activities, particularly urban and industrial development, extraction operations, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, draining of wetlands, cottage development and recreational activities.

Road development fragments habitat so that populations of relatively sedentary species, such as the blue racer, also become fragmented. In such situations, species are vulnerable to restricted gene flow, which increases the vulnerability of populations in small habitat patches to disease outbreaks and other random events. Roads also increase mortality, particularly of snakes like the eastern ribbonsnake and the great basin gophersnake that seek warmth by basking on pavement.

Eastern ribbonsnakes (Atlantic population and Great Lakes population) may be affected by declines in amphibians upon which these snakes prey. Cats and dogs also prey on native species and are suspected of adding to the decline of populations of the eastern ribbonsnake (Great Lakes population) and the milksnake. Rubber boas are inadvertently killed when fields are hayed. The massasauga, a rattlesnake, is killed because it can be dangerous. The milksnake and the great basin gophersnake are killed because they are confused with rattlesnakes. The blue racer also suffers because some people fear or dislike snakes in general. The western skink and northern map turtle are collected for the pet trade. All these activities result in the removal of individuals from what in most cases are already small populations, further increasing the risk of extirpation of some species or populations.

The stinkpot and spiny softshell are being affected by aquatic pollution from sewage, industrial discharge, gasoline and oil leakage from boats, and runoff from roads and agricultural lands, which result in a decline in the quality of their habitats. The stinkpot is also inadvertently hit by motorboats and is subject to increased predation by raccoons, whose populations flourish in areas close to human habitation. The Pacific pond turtle and northern map turtle have suffered population declines as a result of commercial harvesting for food, and are still being affected by wetland modification and destruction. The eggs of the spiny softshell and the northern map turtle are also being destroyed by fluctuating water levels, thereby lowering the reproductive success of these species.

Amphibians

The five amphibians added to Schedule 1 are the red-legged frog, spring salamander, great plains toad and the Northern leopard frogs (western boreal/prairie populations). All five are extremely susceptible to habitat change. Urbanization and agricultural use of grasslands, moist forest valleys and wetlands have rendered these habitats unsuitable for these amphibians. The draining of wetlands and forest operations has resulted in habitats that are now less able to support previous population numbers. The use of herbicides and pesticides and aquatic pollution from sewage, industrial discharge, gasoline and oil leakage from boats, and runoff from roads and agricultural lands have had serious negative impacts on some populations.

In addition, the red-legged frog and spring salamander are peripheral species. Their restricted ranges are fragmented and are subject to a great deal of disturbance because they occur in the southern parts of Canada where human populations and their impacts are highest. One of the main threats to both species is the loss and degradation of their habitats, which are subject to considerable pressure from resource extraction, development and intensive recreational use. Both species are also threatened by predation and competition from introduced bullfrogs. The habitat of the red-legged frog has been impacted by the alteration of natural drainage patterns and water levels in lakes and streams. The spring salamander has specialized habitat requirements and is susceptible to changes in stream conditions resulting from the pumping of aquifers and the cutting of forests. Because of the species' low dispersal rates and late sexual maturity, salamander populations that are lost have little chance of recovery.

The great plains toad is negatively impacted by the conversion of grasslands to agriculture, and habitat fragmentation by roads leads to high mortality, particularly when large numbers of toads need to migrate to and from breeding ponds.

Northern leopard frogs (western boreal/prairie populations) have undergone severe range contractions and population declines, particularly in western Canada. Remaining populations have become isolated as a result of habitat loss and degradation. In addition, this frog is threatened by commercial harvesting and use as bait. The introduction of game fish into breeding ponds which were formerly free of fish has made some ponds unsuitable because the fish prey on both the leopard frog and the western toad. The fish have also brought in diseases to which western toads and their tadpoles are susceptible. These toads are still relatively widespread, but have undergone population declines and extirpations, particularly in areas that are heavily populated by humans.

Terrestrial Molluscs

The four terrestrial molluscs added to Schedule 1 are the Puget Oregonian snail, Oregon forestsnail, dromedary jumping-slug, and warty jumping-slug. All are relatively sedentary species and are seriously affected by habitat loss and fragmentation, making them vulnerable to restricted gene flow, which increases the vulnerability of populations in small habitat patches to stochastic events and results in their inability to recolonize habitat patches if local populations are lost.

All four terrestrial molluscs are peripheral species with most of their ranges in the United States. Their Canadian ranges are restricted to southern British Columbia, are often limited by climatic conditions, and are necessarily quite small. Moreover, human populations and their impacts are greatest in these areas, resulting in habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, extraction operations and conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Roads and other habitat alterations can change humidity, light and temperature conditions on a microclimatic scale thereby making habitats no longer suitable for these four species.

The Puget Oregonian, an inhabitant of old-growth forests, has disappeared from Canada, probably because the habitat within its very restricted range has been severely impacted by urbanization and agricultural use. Populations of the Oregon forestsnail, also a forest species, have also been impacted by development, are severely fragmented and continue to decline. Known threats to the dromedary jumping-slug and the warty jumping-slug are associated with habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from logging.

Non-native slugs occur in the habitats of the Puget Oregonian, Oregon forestsnail and dromedary jumping-slug and may prey on or compete with these species.

Plants, Lichens and Mosses

Twenty-seven species, subspecies, varieties or populations of plants, lichens and mosses have been added to Schedule 1. They are: the bird's-foot violet, coastal Scouler's catchfly, eastern prairie fringed-orchid, forked three-awned grass, Howell's tritileia, Kellogg's rush, small-flowered sand-verbena, streambank lupine, common hoptree, crooked-stem aster, Lemmon's holly fern, western spiderwort, white wood aster, wild hyacinth, willowleaf aster, climbing prairie rose, tuberous Indian plantain, margined streamside moss, incurved grizzled moss, silver hair moss, spoon-leaved moss, lakeside daisy, Athabasca thrift, and two populations of the boreal felt lichen.

Habitat is the single most important issue for these plants, especially for those at the northern extent of their range. The bird's-foot violet, coastal Scouler's catchfly, eastern prairie fringed-orchid, forked three-awned grass, Howell's tritileia, Kellogg's rush, small-flowered sand-verbena, streambank lupine, common hoptree, crooked-stem aster, Lemmon's holly fern, western spiderwort, white wood aster, wild hyacinth, willowleaf aster, climbing prairie rose, tuberous Indian plantain, margined streamside moss, incurved grizzled moss, silver hair moss, and spoon-leaved moss all occur at the northern edge of their ranges in small, isolated pockets subject to random events, such as fire, flood or drought. The Canadian ranges of these species are restricted to the southern parts of the country and are often limited by climatic conditions. The ranges of the bird's-foot violet, Lemmon's holly fern and Athabasca thrift are restricted to a few square kilometres. Those of the Kellogg's rush, small-flowered sand-verbena, margined streamside moss and spoon-leaved moss are confined to a number of square metres, while the incurved grizzled moss was known from only a few square centimetres. The southern parts of the country where peripheral species occur are also the areas where human populations and their impacts are greatest. As a result, virtually all peripheral species are affected by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation resulting from a variety of human activities, but mostly from urban and industrial development, extraction operations, conversion of native habitats to agriculture, draining of wetlands, cottage development and recreational activities.

Among the peripheral species, Kellog's rush and Lemmon's holly fern, occur in Canada as small, disjunct, northern outlier populations, separated from the main part of the species' ranges by hundreds of kilometres. Such populations are particularly vulnerable to inbreeding depression and stochastic events, and their habitats are unlikely to be recolonized if the species become extirpated.

The lakeside daisy and Athabasca thrift are North American endemics with small, restricted ranges, all or a large portion of which occur in Canada. Approximately 95% of the small population of the lakeside daisy occurs in Ontario, and the entire global population of the Athabasca thrift is confined to one dune system in Saskatchewan.

The Coastal Scouler's Catchfly, which grows along coasts in areas that are occasionally flooded by high waves, is threatened by potential oil spills. The habitats of margined streamside moss, Van Brunt's Jacob's-ladder, small-flowered lipocarpha, streambank lupine, silver hair moss, eastern prairie fringed-orchid, Kellogg's rush, crooked-stem aster and tuberous Indian plantain are affected by alteration of water levels in the water table and in lakes and streams, and alteration of natural drainage patterns through stream channelization and construction of drainage ditches, dykes and dams.

The streambank lupine, crooked-stem aster, bird's-foot violet, coastal Scouler's catchfly, Kellog's rush and willowleaf aster are threatened by road, highway or even park maintenance activities (including application of herbicides) that are detrimental to these species.

The Kellog's rush, lakeside daisy, Van Brunt's Jacob's-ladder, climbing prairie rose, tuberous Indian plantain, coastal Scouler's catchfly, forked three-awned grass, western spiderwort, white wood aster and Athabasca thrift can be seriously harmed by trampling by foot traffic and especially ATV traffic.

Some populations of the common hoptree and wild hyacinth have been damaged by the droppings of rapidly increasing cormorant populations. The cormorant population explosion was caused by overfishing of predatory fish species, which in turn caused certain species of fish taken by cormorants to increase in abundance.

The eastern prairie fringed-orchid and western spiderwort are collected from the wild for use in gardens. In addition, these species as well as Howell's triteleia, bird's-foot violet, coastal Scouler's catchfly, climbing prairie rose and forked three-awned grass depend on open habitats where fire suppression, lack of grazing and other natural disturbances can lead to these native plants being choked out by successional processes. The small-flowered sand-verbena and western spiderwort also suffer from the lack of natural disturbances that maintain open dune systems where competition is reduced.

The white wood aster, climbing prairie rose, bird's-foot violet, coastal Scouler's catchfly, eastern prairie fringed-orchid, forked three-awned grass, Howell's triteleia, small-flowered sand-verbena, western spiderwort and wild hyacinth are subject to serious and increasing threats from invasive alien species that compete with native species and render native habitats unsuitable for them. The streambank lupine is also at risk from the introduced yellow bush lupine which threatens to hybridize with the native species and result in the loss of the native lupine through genetic swamping.

The boreal felt lichen, a global relict now occurring only in Canada as two populations (Boreal population and Atlantic population), is very sensitive to changes in microclimatic conditions. The removal of trees, making of roads and other habitat alterations can change humidity, light and temperature conditions on a microclimatic scale, thereby making habitats no longer suitable for the lichen. The species is also sensitive to airborne pollution from industrial sources and acid rain. The last few individuals of the Boreal Felt Lichen (Atlantic population) in Nova Scotia are likely to disappear in the near future because of the species' sensitivity to air pollution and acid precipitation. The boreal felt lichen (Boreal population) and the spoon-leaved moss are also likely being affected by air pollution and acid rain.

The spoon-leaved moss appears to be threatened by climate change, which may possibly also threaten the boreal felt lichen (Boreal population).

Lemmon's holly fern and incurved grizzled moss have existed in Canada as small populations. Although apparently suitable habitat continues to exist and there are no apparent threatsto either species, Lemmon's holly fern continues to persist in a restricted area but with no sign of sexual reproduction, while the incurved grizzled moss has become extirpated.

Aquatic Species

The 13 aquatic species added to Schedule 1 of SARA include marine mammals, freshwater fish and freshwater mussels.

The Sei, Blue and Humpback whales (Pacific populations), the North Atlantic Right whale and the Blue whale (Atlantic population) have been added to Schedule 1 of SARA. Each of these species was greatly reduced by commercial whaling that lasted into the 1900's, and none has recovered significantly from these low population levels since whaling ended. Ongoing threats to these whales such as ship strikes and entanglement in fishing gear, coupled with low recruitment rates, mean that recovery of these species may be difficult to achieve.

The six freshwater fish species and two freshwater mussels added to Schedule 1 include one fish species found in Newfoundland (Banded Killifish – Newfoundland population), three fish species found in British Columbia (Enos Lake benthic and limnetic Sticklebacks, Salish Sucker), two fish species found in Ontario (Pugnose Shiner and Northern Madtom), and two freshwater mussels (Kidneyshell and Round Hickorynut) also found in Ontario. These species have restricted ranges; threats include habitat degradation and poor water quality. Recovery actions have been initiated for many of these species or their ecosystems, which will benefit both these species and related aquatic and terrestrial species inhabiting the same areas.

As well as the addition of 73 species to Schedule 1, this Order also corrects spelling, typographical and taxonomic errors for 55 species previously listed in Schedule 1. It also removes 16 species from Schedule 2 and 27 species from Schedule 3 of SARA as these species have now been added to Schedule 1. As a result of this amendment, the names of species in Schedule 1 have also been updated to correspond to the names currently used by COSEWIC.

Alternatives

Under SARA, the GIC can, within nine months after receiving an assessment of the status of a species by COSEWIC, take one of three courses of action: accept the assessment and add the species to Schedule 1, decide not to add the species to Schedule 1 or refer the assessment back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration. All three courses of action were considered when developing this Order.

The first course of action is to accept the assessments and to add the species to Schedule 1 of SARA, thereby ensuring that these species receive protection in accordance with the provisions of SARA, including the mandatory recovery planning, the stewardship and the prohibition provisions. Of the 79 species the receipt of which was acknowledged by the GIC, 73 species are added to Schedule 1.

The second course of action is not to add the species to Schedule 1. Although species may still be protected under other federal, provincial, or territorial legislation, species at risk not added to Schedule1 do not benefit from the automatic protection of prohibitions and from the recovery planning measures afforded by SARA. The Cultus and Sakinaw populations of Pacific sockeye salmon are not added to Schedule 1 because of the unacceptably high social and economic costs that the commercial fishing and recreational fishing sectors, some Aboriginal peoples, coastal communities and others would face if these species were added to Schedule 1. Although the overall health and resiliency of Pacific sockeye salmon is dependent on its overall genetic diversity, of which these two populations are a component, these two populations represent a small fraction of one percent of all BC sockeye salmon populations. Threats to these two populations include incidental catch in mixed-stock fisheries, predation by marine mammals or other fish, insufficient water to the migratory pathway (in the case of Sakinaw), habitat degradation, and unfavourable environmental conditions such as pre-spawn mortality related to early entry into rivers and a parasite (in the case of Cultus).

Three species of concern for the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, the polar bear, the Northwestern population of the grizzly bear and the Western population of the wolverine, are not being added to Schedule 1 at this time in order to consult with the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board on concerns that have been raised by the Board. These consultations will be undertaken on an urgent basis and are expected to be completed this spring, at which time the Minister will reconsider the matter.

The third course of action is to refer the assessment back to COSEWIC for further information or consideration. During the time that COSEWIC reviews the new information and confirms or modifies its assessment, the species does not benefit from the automatic protection of prohibitions and from the recovery planning measures afforded by SARA. The speckled dace assessment is referred back to COSEWIC for further information and consideration, by order of the GIC on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment. Questions were raised in consultations about the information that was used by COSEWIC for assessing the status of the speckled dace as being endangered. When COSEWIC made its assessment in 2002, it placed significant weight on a proposed hydroelectric dam that it believed could lead to a 22 per cent loss of speckled dace habitat. The proposed dam has since been redesigned to lessen the impact on habitat by two-thirds.

Benefits and Costs

The addition of species to Schedule 1 will entail both benefits and costs in terms of social, economic and environmental considerations through the implementation of the Act's prohibitions and the recovery requirements. Some impacts can be quantified in absolute terms, while others are more qualitative, such as the intrinsic value of species, or their contribution to the biological diversity of the planet.

Benefits

Upon listing in Schedule 1, migratory birds covered by the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 and aquatic species wherever they are found, as well as all species found on federal lands, will benefit from immediate protection in the form of prohibitions against killing, harming, harassing, capturing or taking individuals of species that are listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened. SARA also contains prohibitions against possessing, collecting, buying, selling or trading individuals, or parts or derivatives thereof, of extirpated, endangered or threatened listed species. In addition, the damage and destruction of the residences of individuals of listed species are prohibited.

Listed species will also benefit from the implementation of recovery strategies, action plans and management plans. Proposed recovery strategies, developed in consultation or cooperation with stakeholders, Aboriginal peoples and the public, must be included in the Public Registry within one year of a species being listed as endangered and within two years after a species is listed as threatened or extirpated. Proposed management plans for species of special concern must be prepared and posted on the Public Registry within three years of the species being listed.

Recovery measures to protect species/populations following listing, such as habitat protection and enhancement, would assist in rebuilding other species inhabiting the same areas, for example, by benefiting other species that exist in the same watershed. This may lead to improved recreational opportunities for other fish and wildlife species and to enhanced ecosystem services from the areas where habitat protection and enhancement is carried out. Many of these species occupy an ecological niche as predators, prey or symbionts, such that their recovery may contribute to strengthening related predator/prey populations and ecosystems.

Species provide various ecosystem services and serve as an indicator of, and contributor to, environmental quality. Many of these geographically and biologically distinct species are of public and scientific interest due to their unique genetic composition and evolutionary histories.

Freshwater fish and molluscs are often indicators of water quality in watersheds where they occur. Potential recovery measures may benefit water quality. Furthermore, potential recovery measures for several of these species may also provide benefits to the agricultural sector from a more efficient use of fertilizers through improved nutrient management techniques and reduced soil erosion.

The protection of marine mammals can provide increased opportunities for an expanded eco-tourism industry, as the species recover and the populations increase. Many marine mammals are also highly appreciated by Aboriginal peoples. Industries such as forestry have recognized that sustainable use of the resource makes good business sense. There can be immediate cost savings as well as the long term viability of the resource.

Canadians depend upon biodiversity for continued food sources, new medicines, and the natural resource economy. Ecosystem health and the sustainable use of our current natural resources will be the source of future economic and employment opportunities. Many of these species are also valued by Aboriginal peoples for cultural, spiritual and subsistence purposes.

Species also have substantial non-use economic/intangible value to Canadian society. Citizens want to preserve species for future generations to enjoy; many derive value from knowing the species exists, even if they will never personally see or "use" them. There is also value derived from retaining the option to observe or even use the species at some future time.

A significant benefit of adding species to Schedule 1 is the conservation of biological, genetic and ecological diversity. Biological diversity, often referred to as biodiversity, includes both the amount and variety of life forms at several levels of scale, for instance, individual, population, community, ecosystem, landscape or biome. Genetic diversity refers to the number and abundance of gene types within a population and is important for maintaining the health of individuals and populations over time. Ecological diversity refers to the number and abundance of ecological types or zones (e.g., ecosystems, landscape features) and is important to maintain a variety of habitats needed by species, particularly in times of stress, such as drought or increased predation.

Biodiversity is invaluable to the sustainable productivity of soils and provides the genetic resources for harvested species. It protects against ecosystem disruptions and disease outbreaks and is an essential source of bio-control agents. The importance of biological diversity has been recognized internationally, as more than 180 countries have become parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, committing to promoting the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Listing of species under SARA may also contribute to Canada's image as international leader in environmental conservation and supports Canada's role in international trade discussions. In the past, some American interests have charged that the lack of an endangered species act in Canada has presented Canadian industry with an unfair advantage over US firms.

Costs

Adding a species to Schedule 1 and the resulting prohibitions and mandatory recovery provisions may lead to costs for industry, Aboriginal communities and government. Costs may also arise from recovery measures and protection of critical habitat, once they are in place. As a result of the protection resulting from the prohibitions applying to listed species found on federal lands and to listed aquatic and migratory birds species everywhere, listing of these species creates obligations for all federal resource or land management departments (in addition to Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Parks Canada Agency) to ensure compliance with SARA.

For the freshwater fish and mollusc species listed, there may be restrictions on the operation and maintenance of marinas, dredging operations, and coastal development such as cottage and recreational development, urban development, transportation development, and agriculture. Reduced harvesting opportunities may result in reduced revenue in fisheries in which listed species are incidentally caught (Pugnose Shiner). These may result either through automatic prohibitions on listing or via measures required under recovery strategies.

Aboriginal peoples may experience the loss of some food, social and ceremonial harvesting of listed aquatic species or those caught incidentally in the harvest of co-migrating non-listed species, such as the salmon populations. Aboriginal peoples may also face reduced economic development opportunities from potential recovery measures, for example, through restrictions on land development.

For the marine mammals added to Schedule 1, four main industry sectors could face economic costs as a result of protection and recovery actions: the fishing industry; the shipping industry; the tourism industry; and the oil and gas industry. The shipping industry may be affected by re-routing traffic, changing shipping lanes and slowing vessel speed that could lead to increased costs for fuel and time. The oil and gas industry may be subject to more restrictive guidelines for seismic exploration and development. The fishing industry may be subject to gear, time and area restrictions to minimize entanglements.

Five migratory bird species are listed. The implementation of the prohibitions resulting from the listing of these species will not result in any additional costs to the resource industry or individuals as these species are already protected by similar prohibitions under the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994.

All species found within the boundaries of national parks of Canada or other lands administered by the Parks Canada Agency, including species at risk, are also already protected under the Canada National Parks Act, the Saguenay St-Lawrence Marine Parks Act, or measures and management tools available to the Parks Canada Agency under other legislation. Protection measures that will result from adding species to Schedule 1 found on those lands will not, therefore, impose significant additional burdens on the public.

Current activities on federal crown lands, including the activities of lessees of federal lands and Aboriginal people, may have to be adjusted to ensure compliance with the addition of species to Schedule 1 and the protection prohibitions. For federal landholders, there will be a need to ensure adequate protection measures are put in place to guard against any practices that could contravene the prohibitions protecting species at risk.

For future projects that affect a listed wildlife species and trigger a federal environmental assessment, SARA requires notification of the competent Minister. The person responsible for ensuring such environmental assessments are conducted must also identify any adverse effects of the project on the listed wildlife species or its critical habitat and ensure that measures are taken to avoid or lessen those effects and to monitor them.

Governments will also incur a variety of direct management costs from adding a species to Schedule 1, including developing and implementing recovery strategies, action plans and management plans as well as research, consultation, negotiation, monitoring, enforcement and stewardship. Indirect costs could include the loss of tax and royalty income if listing reduced economic activity, and an increase in social benefit payments to affected individuals. However, these expenditures could generate offsetting revenue/economic benefits for local economies.

To help Canadians protect and recovery species at risk, the Habitat Stewardship Program (HSP) has been established. The HSP allocates up to $10 million a year to projects that conserve and protect species at risk and their habitats. In the program's first year 37 projects benefited and this number will rise to 164 projects across the country in 2004-2005. Funding is being directed to projects relating to aquatic and terrestrial species, Aboriginal projects, environmental non-government organization projects in the resource sector, and to a variety of other projects.

To assist federal departments in meeting the requirements set out under the Act, the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund was created in 2001. The aim of this fund is to contribute to the recovery of extirpated, endangered and threatened species by supporting high priority recovery activities.

Consultation

Public consultation is an essential part of the regulatory process of the Government of Canada. The SARA listing process was designed to be both open and transparent. Under the Act, the scientific assessment of the species status and the decision to place it on Schedule 1 are two separate processes. This separation guarantees that scientists benefit from independence when making assessments of the biological status of species, and that Canadians have the opportunity to participate in the decision-making process in determining whether or not species will be listed under SARA.

Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada conducted public consultations on the proposed listing of species under the responsibilities of the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans respectively. Canadians were invited to express their views on the proposal to add or not add each of the 79 species to Schedule 1.

Environment Canada began public consultations in March, 2004 on the 63 terrestrial species assessed to be at risk by COSEWIC. Stakeholders and the general public were consulted by means of a document entitled Consultation On Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act -- March 2004. The document outlined the species for which addition to Schedule 1 was being considered, the reasons for considering listing, and the implications of listing species. This document was posted on the Public Registry. The consultation process also consisted of wide distribution of the consultation document and direct consultation with identified stakeholders, including various industrial sectors, provincial/territorial governments, federal departments and agencies, Aboriginal organizations, Wildlife Management Boards, resource users, landowners and environmental non-government organizations. Meetings were held with affected Aboriginal people, the Species at Risk Advisory Committee, and other identified concerned groups.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada commenced consultation with Canadians in January of 2004 on whether or not to add 16 aquatic species to Schedule 1 of SARA. Consultations were facilitated through consultation workshops, workbooks and other supporting documents, which were posted online on the Public Registry and Fisheries and Oceans Canada internet sites. It was also mailed directly to other government departments, stakeholders, Aboriginal peoples, and non-government organizations. Public meetings were held in 14 communities and additional meetings were held with interested or potentially affected individuals, organizations, and Aboriginal peoples. Consultations were organized as efficiently as possible by grouping species by their geographical location and by using existing mechanisms, such as pre-scheduled recovery strategy workshops or regular industry consultation meetings.

Many comments and concerns were received during consultations, both through written submissions and during meetings and workshops from Aboriginal groups, environmental groups, hunting associations, industry groups and the public. With regard to the 63 terrestrial species, most Canadians that provided comments supported COSEWIC's assessments and asked the Minister of the Environment to proceed with recommending the inclusion of these species in Schedule 1 of SARA.

Several non-governmental organizations and individuals expressed disapproval of the federal government's listing process, including the Canadian Nature Federation, the Sierra Club of Canada, Environmental Defence Canada and the World Wildlife Fund. In general, these organizations maintain that listing should be based solely on COSEWIC's scientific assessment and not on social, economic or other factors. Other stakeholders, such as the Fisheries Council of Canada and some provincial and territorial governments, expressed support for the process whereby stakeholder input was solicited and considered in developing recommendations on whether to add species to Schedule 1.

A number of organizations disagreed with inclusion of the polar bear (Conservation Force and Canadian Circumpolar Institute), the grizzly bear (Conservation Force and The Guide Outfitters Association of British Columbia) and the woodland caribou (Conservation Force) on the list. They argued that these species or populations are well-managed and secure in terms of their conservation status. The species in question were assessed by COSEWIC as special concern. Management plans for special concern species may authorize hunting if it is done at a sustainable level and does not detrimentally affect the population status.

Provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, and industry stakeholders signalled general support for the protection and recovery of aquatic species at risk, while raising concerns regarding negative implications to social and economic activities. The greatest concern for the freshwater fishes and molluscs under consideration is that protection and recovery actions will unduly impact agriculture, forestry, and other natural resource-based activities. Likewise, the shipping, oil and gas, fishing, and other ocean-based sectors voiced some concern regarding protection and recovery actions for marine mammals that may negatively impact future development. Any sectors, stakeholders, Aboriginal peoples and jurisdictions affected by recovery actions will be included as part of planning and implementation of the recovery process.

The strongest and most widespread opposition to listing received during consultations related to the proposed recommendation not to add the Sakinaw and Cultus populations of Pacific sockeye salmon to Schedule 1. Commercial harvesters and recreational fishers expressed concern that further conservation measures for these populations will further restrict mixed-stock fisheries in the Fraser River, Juan de Fuca and Johnstone and Georgia Straits, resulting in severe social and economic hardship. Aboriginal peoples in inland areas consider these populations to be culturally important because of their historic role in meeting food, social and ceremonial needs, and thus support their listing, while Aboriginal people in the marine environment who are more closely associated with the mixed stock fishing oppose the listings because of potential restrictions on mixed-stock fisheries.

Municipalities of Grand Forks and Greenwood in south central British Columbia expressed their concern about listing of speckled dace, as they considered that this could impact construction of a hydroelectric development project in that area. The proponent of the project, Powerhouse Developments Inc., also expressed concern that the COSEWIC status report did not accurately reflect the species' status, particularly in light of the fact that the dam had been substantially redesigned since completion of the COSEWIC status assessment, to reduce impact on speckled dace habitat. An environmental group in this area supported listing of the speckled dace.

With respect to aquatic species, the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board confirmed their support for listing the Blue Whale (Atlantic population).

Following initial consultations, the proposal to add species to Schedule 1 was pre-published in the Canada Gazette, Part I for a final, 30-day period of public review and comment on October 23, 2004.

More than 50 responses were received from groups and individuals, primarily in response to the proposed recommendations not to add the two sockeye salmon populations to Schedule 1. A number of individuals and groups, including the Sierra Club, British Columbia Aboriginal Fisheries Commission, and Soowahlie First Nation are critical of these decisions. They believe, for example, that the estimated costs from listing the sockeye populations are exaggerated and that not listing will cause these populations to become extinct. Many individuals and associations, primarily from the fishing industry sector, strongly support the decision not to add to Schedule 1. They feel that the estimated costs are understated, and that listing these populations would bring significant negative economic consequences to the commercial fishing sector and coastal communities of British Columbia.

The British Columbia chapter of the Sierra Club of Canada has requested that a decision regarding Cultus and Sakinaw sockeye salmon be deferred until such time as the Government has an opportunity to establish whether there is any basis to the justifications for the Minister's reasons for recommending not listing these populations. They have suggested that in order to establish the facts there should be a full public review of the socio-economic analyses.

The Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) has requested that the Margined Streamside Moss be listed as extirpated rather that endangered as assessed by COSEWIC, because it has not been seen in the wild for 27 years (since 1977). In accordance with COSEWIC criteria, for a species to be assessed as extirpated, the species must not have been seen in the wild for 50 years. FPAC also requested that the Dromedary Jumping Slug and the Warty Jumping Slug be considered as data deficient and not be added to Schedule 1 because of scientific uncertainty. While there is some scientific uncertainty associated with these species, the assessments for both species are consistent with COSEWIC's criteria (threatened for Dromedary Jumping Slug, and special concern for the Warty Jumping Slug).

The Nunavut Wildlife Management Board wrote to express its opposition to listing the polar bear, the Northwestern population of grizzly bear and the Western population of wolverine on the basis that community and aboriginal traditional knowledge was not fully considered during the assessment process, and that consultations with the Board on the proposal to add these species to Schedule 1 have not been sufficient. The Board requested that the three species be referred back to COSEWIC for further consideration.

After consideration of results from consultations, analysis of biological and socio-economic impacts, and comments received during publication of proposed recommendations in the Canada Gazette, Part I, the Minister of the Environment has recommended that Cultus and Sakinaw populations of Pacific sockeye salmon, as well as the polar bear, the Northwestern population of the grizzly bear and the Western population of the wolverine, not be added to Schedule 1 of SARA, and the assessment for speckled dace be referred back to COSEWIC for further information and consideration. The explanations for these recommendations are outlined in the Alternatives section, above.

With respect to the polar bear, the Northwestern population of grizzly bear and Western population of wolverine, these species are not being added to Schedule 1 of SARA at this time, in order to consult further with the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board on the concerns that the Board has raised. These consultations are expected to be completed this spring, at which time the Minister will reconsider the matter.

Strategic Environmental Assessment

The addition of 73 species to Schedule 1 of SARA ensures that they receive the full benefits of the protection and recovery measures established in SARA. This will result in overall benefits to the environment both in terms of the actual species protected and in terms of overall protection of Canada's biodiversity.

The decision not to add the Cultus and Sakinaw populations of Pacific sockeye salmon to Schedule 1 will mean that some level of killing, harming, capturing or taking of these populations, will continue since they may be intercepted in mixed-stock sockeye fisheries. Recognizing that harvesting by the fisheries has been identified as one of the key threat to these populations, and given their precarious status, continued fishing will pose an ongoing threat to these two populations. However, Fisheries and Oceans Canada will continue to implement a departmental action plan for the protection and recovery of these populations, including a continuation of stringent fishery restrictions and habitat restoration and broodstock protection programs. Recovery strategies for the two populations are under development. These will be completed in 2005, and will be used to guide future recovery efforts. Although the overall health and resiliency of Pacific sockeye salmon is dependent on the genetic diversity that individual populations represent, these two populations represent a small fraction of one percent of all BC sockeye salmon populations. Nevertheless, should these populations disappear, their loss would add to the cumulative decline of Canada's biodiversity.

Referring the assessment of the speckled dace back to COSEWIC for further information and consideration will mean a delay in a decision regarding listing the species, if COSEWIC confirms that the species is at risk. In the interim, the species will not benefit from mandatory SARA prohibitions and may remain vulnerable to any upstream impacts in the small watersheds where it occurs. Regarding the proposed hydroelectric dam, the project proponent has redesigned the project to reduce habitat impacts on speckled dace subsequent to the COSEWIC assessment. An environmental assessment, which under CEAA requirements must consider potential impacts on the speckle dace, is ongoing for this project.

The decision not to add to Schedule 1 the polar bear, the Northwestern population of grizzly bear and Western population of wolverine at this time pending further consultations with the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board means that the mandatory development of management plans and other SARA provisions (such as those relating to project review) would not apply. Intensive management planning is currently underway for polar bears through the Polar Bear Technical Committee. However,no range-wide management planning is currently occurring for grizzly bears or wolverines; therefore, the potential adverse effects resulting from a delay in recovery planning would be most significant for these species. It should be noted, however, that although management planning outside of the SARA Recovery framework could still be initiated, these effects can be mitigated through management planning in support of recovery within a reasonable time, and to ensure that federal environmental assessments consider potential adverse effects upon these species using the stringent standards for species at risk.

When the polar bear, Northwestern population of grizzly bear and Western populations of wolverine are found within the boundaries of national parks of Canada or other lands administered by the Parks Canada Agency, these species continue to be protected under the Canada National Parks Act or measures and management tools available to the Parks Canada Agency under other legislation.

Compliance and Enforcement

The SARA promotes protection and recovery of species at risk by engaging Canadians in stewardship programs, and by giving landowners, land users and other stakeholders the opportunity to participate in the recovery process. Stewardship actions include the wide range of voluntary actions Canadians are taking to monitor species at risk and their habitats, recovery actions to improve the status of species at risk, and direct actions to protect species at risk.

Environment Canada, Parks Canada Agency and Fisheries and Oceans Canada facilitate stewardship activities and promote compliance with SARA by producing promotional and educational materials and organizing educational activities. These materials and activities include, for example, the SARA Public Registry, an electronic information bulletin, posters, information sessions, engaging learning activities, web features, curricula and other public education projects. As well, funding under the Habitat Stewardship Program is available for those groups or individuals wishing to undertake projects to protect and enhance important habitat.

At the time of listing, automatic prohibitions on the harming of individuals and their residences come into effect, thus providing immediate and direct protection. Subsequently, recovery strategies, action plans and management plans must be developed to promote and manage the recovery of the species. The implementation of these plans may result in recommendations for further regulatory action for protection of the species, or may draw on the provisions of other acts of Parliament, such as the Fisheries Act, to provide required protection.

SARA provides for penalties for contraventions to the Act, including liability for costs, fines or imprisonment, alternative measures agreements, seizure and forfeiture of the proceeds of an illegal activity. SARA also provides for inspections and search and seizure operations by qualified officers designated under SARA. Under the penalty provisions of the Act, a corporation found guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction is liable for a fine of not more than $300,000, a non-profit corporation is liable for a fine of not more than $50,000, and any other person to a fine of not more than $50,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year, or to both. In the case of a corporation found guilty of an indictable offence, it is liable for a fine of not more than $1,000,000, a non-profit corporation to a fine of not more than $250,000, and any other person to a fine of not more than $250,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years, or to both.

Certain activities affecting a listed species will require permits. Such permits will be considered only for research relating to the conservation of a species that is conducted by qualified scientists, for activities that benefit a listed species or enhance its chances of survival, and for activities that incidentally affect a listed species. These exceptions can be made only when it is established that all reasonable alternatives have been considered and the best solution has been adopted, when all feasible measures will be taken to minimize the impact of the activity, and when the survival or recovery of the species will not be jeopardized.

Contacts

Mrs. Renée Bergeron
Regulatory Analyst
Legislative Services
Program Integration Branch
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Gatineau, Quebec
K1A 0H3
Telephone: (819) 997-1301
FAX: (819) 953-7177
E-mail: sararegistry@ec.gc.ca

Mr. Peter Ferguson
Regulatory Analyst
Legislative and Regulatory Affairs
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0E6
Telephone: (613) 990-9325
FAX: (613) 993-5204
E-mail: sararegistry@ec.gc.ca

Mrs. Maryse Mahy
Project Manager
SARA Legislation and Policy
Ecological Integrity Branch
Parks Canada
Gatineau, Quebec
K1A 0M5
Telephone: (819) 953-6465
FAX: (819) 997-4831
E-mail: sararegistry@ec.gc.ca

Appendix 1. Seventy-three species added to Schedule 1, Species at Risk Act

TaxonSpecies
Extirpated 
ReptilesGophersnake, Pacific
ReptilesTurtle, Pacific Pond
MolluscsSnail, Puget Oregonian
MossesMoss, Incurved Grizzled
Endangered 
MammalsMole, Townsend's
MammalsWhale, Blue
Atlantic population
MammalsWhale, Blue
Pacific population
MammalsWhale, North Atlantic Right
MammalsWhale, Sei
Pacific population
MammalsWolverine
Eastern population
BirdsScreech-owl macfarlanei subspecies, Western
ReptilesRacer, Blue
FishMadtom, Northern
FishShiner, Pugnose
FishStickleback
Benthic Enos Lake
FishStickleback
Limnetic Enos Lake
FishSucker, Salish
LepidopteransMetalmark, Mormon Southern Mountain population
LepidopteransMoth, Yucca
MolluscsForestsnail, Oregon
MolluscsHickorynut, Round
MolluscsKidneyshell
Vascular PlantsCatchfly, Coastal Scouler's
Vascular PlantsFringed-Orchid,
Eastern Prairie
Vascular PlantsGrass, Forked Three-awned
Vascular PlantsLipocarpha, Small-flowered
Vascular PlantsLupine, Streambank
Vascular PlantsRush, Kellogg's
Vascular PlantsSand-verbena, Small-flowered
Vascular PlantsTriteleia, Howell's
Vascular PlantsViolet, Bird's-foot
LichensLichen, Boreal Felt
Atlantic population
MossesMoss, Margined Streamside
MossesMoss, Silver Hair
MossesMoss, Spoon-leaved
Threatened 
MammalsFox, Grey
MammalsWhale, Humpback
North Pacific population
ReptilesGophersnake, Great Basin
ReptilesMassasauga
ReptilesRibbonsnake, Eastern
Atlantic population
ReptilesSoftshell, Spiny
ReptilesStinkpot
LepidopteransMetalmark, Mormon
MolluscsJumping-slug, Dromedary
Vascular PlantsAster, Crooked-stem
Vascular PlantsAster, White Wood
Vascular PlantsAster, Willowleaf
Vascular PlantsDaisy, Lakeside
Vascular PlantsFern, Lemmon's Holly
Vascular PlantsHoptree, Common
Vascular PlantsHyacinth, Wild
Vascular PlantsJacob's-ladder, Van Brunt's
Vascular PlantsSpiderwort, Western
Special Concern 
MammalsCaribou, Woodland
Northern Mountain population
BirdsCurlew, Long-billed
BirdsScreech-owl kennicottii subspecies, Western
BirdsWarbler, Cerulean
ReptilesBoa, Rubber
ReptilesMilksnake
ReptilesRibbonsnake, Eastern
Great Lakes population
ReptilesSkink, Western
ReptilesTurtle, Northern Map
AmphibiansFrog, Northern Leopard
Western Boreal/Prairie populations
AmphibiansFrog, Red-legged
AmphibiansSalamander, Spring
AmphibiansToad, Great Plains
AmphibiansToad, Western
FishKillifish, Banded
Newfoundland population
MolluscsJumping-slug, Warty
Vascular PlantsIndian-plantain, Tuberous
Vascular PlantsRose, Climbing Prairie
Vascular PlantsThrift, Athabasca
LichensLichen, Boreal Felt
Boreal population

Footnote a

S.C. 2002, c. 29

Footnote 1

S.C. 2002, c. 29